Academic journal article Research and Practice in Human Resource Management

Strategic Integration of Recruitment Practices and Its Impact on Performance in Indian Enterprises

Academic journal article Research and Practice in Human Resource Management

Strategic Integration of Recruitment Practices and Its Impact on Performance in Indian Enterprises

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Recruitment and selection is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications. Following the initial selection of incumbents they are likely to again be chosen to develop their further interest in the organisation and later to encourage them to apply for other jobs. Using appropriate techniques the suitable candidates are thus, able to be recruited and selected during their career development (Crawford 2004). It has been argued that in order for the firm to build and sustain the competitive advantage, proper staffing is critical (Wright & Snell 1991, Boxall 1996). Recruitment and selection is a major HRM function as it encompasses all organisational practices and decisions. Recent technological advances, globalisation, social trends and changes within organisations have brought new challenges for recruitment and selection (Rowley & Benson 2002). To effectively face the new challenges recruitment and selection needs to be integrated with business strategies (Lam & White 1998). Recruitment and selection strategies flow ultimately from the organisation's mission and strategic objectives (i.e., the strategies and processes of recruitment and selection must be compatible with business strategies) (Nankervis, Compton & Baird 2002). Social scientists argue that through the integration with business strategies, recruitment and selection help achieve strategic goals and enhance organisational performance (Becker & Gerhart 1996, Youndt, et al. 1996, Lewis 2003).

Over the last thirty years or so, the amount of research on recruitment and selection has increased dramatically. Despite of this increase, recent reviews (Rodwell & Teo 2004, Wright, et al. 2005) of the literature have revealed that past studies mainly focused on the exploration of recruitment and selection practices adopted by the enterprise and not on its relationship to business strategy and performance. This research analyses recruitment and selection as one of the HR practices from the gamut of entire HRM processes and evaluates the flaws that exist in its effective implementation in organisational setup. Although there is wide recognition of the significance of the integration of HRM with business strategies, little research has been devoted on how recruitment and selection strategic integration happens and what might be its effects on organisational performance (Budhwar 2000, Shen 2004).

The integration of HRM and business strategy is possible by the 'fit' of human resources through a variety of HRM practices including recruitment and selection in accordance with the business needs (Legge 1995, Budhwar 2000). Therefore, there is a set priority for organisations to have recruitment and selection strategically integrated with business strategies. The common obstacle in the lack of recruitment and selection strategically integrating with business generally revolve around issues of poor planning and control, resulting in unrealistic timelines, unidentified problems, poor coordination and a lack of monitoring and control. Attaining strategic integration of recruitment and selection with business strategy is a desirable achievement that requires resolution of these common obstacles.

Most research on recruitment and selection has been conducted in Western contexts, mainly in the United States (see e.g., Breaugh & Starke 2000, Wright, et al. 2005). The task of research in developing economies, such as India with considerably different cultural and institutional nuances, is likely to have a profound impact on benchmark HRM practices. For instance, at the macro level organisations tend to be similar with respect to socio economic aspects, while at the micro level they differ from each other due to cultural differences (McCaughey & De Cieri 1999). Empirical evidence shows that strategic HRM practices vary significantly between countries, even within OECD nations (Betcherman, et al. …

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