Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Psychology

Reliability Assessment of the Short Form of Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (Rcmas-2) in Pakistan

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Psychology

Reliability Assessment of the Short Form of Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (Rcmas-2) in Pakistan

Article excerpt

Byline: Iram Mansoor and Riaz Ahmad


The focus of the present research is reliability analysis of Short Form of Total Anxiety of Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS-2; Reynolds and Richmond, 2008). The present research carried out in two phases. In phase I, RCMAS-2 was translated in to Urdu language and adapted according to the Pakistani culture. After the stages of forward and backward translation, the cross language validation was assessed by using "single group bilingual design" consisting of 50 sc hool going bilingual adolescents (25 males and 25 females) selected randomly from the different educational institutes of the Karachi, Pakistan The estimates of cross language validation shows significant results (r=.618) at .01 significance level. In second phase, the reliability of Urdu version of Short Form of RCMAS-2 was established by the application of Urdu version on the sample of 100 children (52males and 46 females) of 6 to 19 years of age from different schools and colleges of Karachi city. Cronbach's alpha was found to be .518.

The scale demonstrated its strength by providing significant test retest reliability (r=.855) at .01 alpha level. Furthermore the correlations between both versions were also assessed. This research initiated further research work on RCMAS-2.


Anxiety is a universal experience. It has been described as a form of awareness which occurs after encountering danger. Anxiety is a generalized state of excessive apprehension that seriously interferes with a person's ability to function (Comer, 2001; Navid et al., 1997; Pastorino and Portillo, 2006). Mostly definitions of anxiety fall in two basic categories; one is habitual innate or trait anxiety and second is situation produced anxiety (Lokare, 1984).

Children's fear and anxiety can be defined as strong emotional reactions that serve to protect the individual from potential threat and harm; they tend to decrease within a short period of time. New fears increase as child grows and become mobile. Children's anxieties have discrepancy depending on the child's age, gender, socio-economic class and other individual and social variables which play vital role in child's life (Fonseca, Yole and Erol, 1994). Wide differences be present in the way children convey fears so the behavioral responses are a comparatively poor index of fear, making pragmatic investigation of children's fears a difficult undertaking (Campbell, 1986). Despite these problems, studies have been conducted using behavioral observations to fear provoking stimuli (Scarr and Salapatek, 1970), parents reports about their children's fears (Jersild and Holmes, 1935) and the reports of the children themselves (Bauer, 1976).

Many studies explored specific age-related fears, such as fear of stranger and test anxiety (Campbell, 1986).

The developmental period of childhood and adolescence, not only effects the manifestation of disorders in children but also the types of treatment for these disorders which are more beneficial according to their developmental stage (Carson et al., 1998; Mash and Barkley, 2003).

There is consistently a call for more research on the topic of childhood anxiety. Much of the empirical evidence upon which children are diagnosed and treated is stems from the research work related to adults (Hudson, Kendall, Coles, Robin and Webb, 2002). This emphasis is problematic in this aspect that the experience of the anxiety symptoms in children is same, as in adults, but how the children display these symptoms and react to them creates a lot of difference from adults. This difference can lead to difficulties in assessment, and it may be difficult to determine if a child's behavior is only part of developmental stage or whether it constitutes a separate disorder.

Most of the current literature on childhood anxiety is focused on treatment of anxiety disorder but there is still a need to study the development of anxiety and its correlates. …

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