Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

Article excerpt

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of apposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction farce during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis system (120 Hz) was used to record knee kinematics, and a force platform (600 Hz) was used to record ground reaction force during landing. The results showed a significant effect for level of apposition in peak normalized ground reaction force (p =.04), knee flexion at ground contact (p =.003), maximum knee flexion (p = .001), and knee flexion range of motion (p = .003). There was a significant effect for gender in maximum knee flexion (p = .01), knee flexion range of motion (p = .001), maximum knee valgus angle (p = .001), and knee valgus range of motion (p = .001). The changes in landing biomechanics as a result of apposition suggest future research on landing mechanics should examine opposed exercises, because opposition may significantly alter neuromuscular responses.

Key words: ACL injury, biomechanics, opposed

**********

Research has shown that approximately 70% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in sporting activities (Faegin, 1988; Johnson, 1988; Smith, Livesay; & Woo, 1988). Studies examining the etiology of ACL injuries report that between 70% and 90% of injuries occur in noncontact situations (Griffin et al., 2000; McNair, Marshall, & Matheston, 1993; Mykelbust, Maehlum, Engbretsen, Strand, & Solheim, 1997). Furthermore, the incidence of ACL injuries is high in sports that involve a high frequency of landing (Hopper & Elliot, 1993), decelerating (Miller, Cooper, & Warner, 1995), or rapid direction change (Arendt & Dick, 1995; Griffin et al., 2000; Olsen, Mykelbust, Engebretsen, & Bahr, 9004), such as basketball, netball, handball, and volleyball. The incidence of noncontact ACL injuries are reported to be 6-8 times greater in women than men competing in the same sports (Asendt & Dick, 1995; Chandy & Grana, 1985; Ferretti, Papandrea, Conteduca, & Mariani, 1992; Gray et al., 1985; Gwinn, Wilckens, McDevitt, Ross, & Kao, 2000; Lidenteld, Schmitt, Hendy, Mangine, & Noyes, 1994; Malone, Hardaker; Garrett, Feagin, & Bassett, 1993).

Because ACL injuries have been associated with landing, deceleration, and rapid direction change, a number of studies investigated gender differences on the biomechanics associated with these maneuvers (Decker, Torry, Wyland, Sterett, & Steadman, 2003; Ford, Myer; & Hewett, 2003; James, Sizer, Starch, Lockhart, & Slauterbeck, 2004; Kemozek, Torry, Van Hoof, Cowley, & Tanner, 2005; Malinzak, Colby, Kirkendall, Yu, & Garrett, 2001; Yu, Lin, & Garrett, 2006). Studies examining sagittal plane kinematics of landing and cutting maneuvers reported that women landed with a lower knee flexion angle than men (Decker et al., 2003; James et al., 2004; Malinzak et al., 2001; Yu et al., 2006) and exhibited a greater range of knee flexion than men (Decker et al., 2003). Due to the effect of knee flexion on the patella-tendon-tibia shaft angle, a given load acting through the patellar ligament is likely to place a greater strain on the ACL if the knee flexion angle is small (Li et al., 1999; Nunley, Wright, Renner, Yu, & Garrett, 2003). A number of observational studies, including Boden, Dean, Feagin, and Garett (2000) and Olsen et al. (2004) reported that noncontact ACL injuries most frequently occur immediately following initial ground contact with the knee close m full extension. Consequently, women tend to make ground contact with their knees in a more extended position than men; thus, women may have greater risk of ACL injury than men. Studies investigating frontal plane kinematics of landing and cutting reported greater maximum knee valgus angle and greater knee valgus angle range of motion (ROM) in women compared to men (Ford et al. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.