This study examines two Canadian teacher education programs in relation to reflection-based principles identified in the Association of Canadian Deans of Education's Accord on Initial Teacher Education. In one program, data analysis indicated a strong link between the practice and beliefs of pre-service teachers: they became more humanistic and their practices were more authentic. In the other program, the relationship between practice and beliefs was weak; practice tended to become more imitative of custodial mentor teachers, more accurately described as inauthentic. The study concludes that when reflection-enhancing practices are prominent, teacher education programs more likely generate humanistic and authentic effective outcomes consistent with reflection-based Accord principles.
Key Words: beliefs about education, authentic practice, pupil control ideologies, educational effectiveness paradigms, reflective practice.
Dans cet article, les auteurs analysent deux programmes de formation l'enseignement canadiens en lien avec les principes--axes sur la reflexion--mis de l'avant dans l'Accord sur la formation initiale a l'enseignement de l'Association canadienne des doyens et des doyennes d'education. Pour l'un des programmes, l'analyse des donnees indique un lien etroit entre la pratique et les croyances des futurs enseignants, leur approche devenant plus humaniste et leurs pratiques etant plus authentiques. Pour l'autre programme, la relation entre la pratique et les croyances etait tenue; leur pratique avait tendance a imiter davantage les mentors et pourrait etre decrite comme inauthentique. Les auteurs en concluent que lorsque des pratiques favorisant la reflexion jouent un role important, les programmes de formation l'enseignement sont plus susceptibles de donner des resultats humanistes et authentiques et ce, dans la logique des principes de l'Accord axes sur la reflexion.
Mots cles : croyances au sujet de l'education, pratique authentique, ideologies quant au contre1e des eleves, paradigme en matiere d'efficacite pedagogique, pratique reflexive.
The Association of Canadian Deans of Education's (ACDE) Accord on Initial Teacher Education (Accord) (ACDE, 2006) supports 12 principles of effective initial teacher education in Canada. The introductory wording of each of the Accord's principles (i.e., "An effective initial teacher education program demonstrates ... /envisions ... /encourages ... / ...") gives evidence of its intent to ascribe specific dimensions to effectiveness in the context of initial teacher education. These principles are identified in Appendix A.
Interpretations of effective have been a source of vociferous and protracted dispute throughout the school effectiveness and improvement literature. In the International Handbook of School Effectiveness Research, Teddlie and Reynolds (2000), both leading effectiveness scholars with strong ties to the International Congress of School Effectiveness and Improvement (ICSEI), confirm the "'schizophrenic' ... nature of ... effectiveness research" (p. 42) as characterized by humanist and scientist views of effectiveness. The humanist view focuses on democratic classroom environment, inclusive school climate, positive relationships, and open communication among all organizational levels. The scientist view focuses on the measurement of processes and products, and ranks teacher-school interaction, climate, and context issues as relatively unimportant.
Following on the heels of a succession of early-twentieth century organizational behaviour phases, including scientific management, closely associated with the work of Taylor (1911) and the human relations movement, grounded in the work of Mayo (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939), several mid-century organizational behaviour theories emerged that clarified the bifurcated conceptual foundation of effectiveness. McGregor's (1960) Theory Y, describing managers' expectations of employees to be self-motivated, responsibility-taking, and trustworthy, the Ohio State Studies' (Halpin, 1956, 1966) interpretation of effective leadership within the context of democratic consideration of an employee's interests, and Willower, Eidell, and Hoy's (1967) depiction of humanistic pupil control ideologies (PCI) as facilitating trusting and empowering interactions between teachers and students seem to align with Teddlie and Reynolds' (2000) humanistic category. …