Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of hip, spine, and wrist fractures [1-4]. Osteoporosis-related fractures produce major morbidity [1-4] and are extremely common in older adults [5-6]. Annually, in the United States, about 1.5 million osteoporosis-related fractures occur, and this number is expected to increase about 50 percent by 2025 . Three common key risk factors for osteoporosis are age, immobility, and being postmenopausal women with low body weight. Hip fractures are generally a fracture of the proximal femur and are responsible for the most serious consequences of osteoporosis . Persons can reduce fracture risk by maintaining bone strength and supporting rapid bone remodeling. To reach these goals, persons with diabetes and elderly people use physical exercise regimes to reduce the risk for osteoporosis and fractures [9-10]. However, immobility, age, and other frailty may prevent optimal participation in exercise regimes designed for osteoporosis patients . Reports indicate that mechanical stimulus in the form of vibration stimulus that travels from the sole of the foot up through the skeleton is anabolic to bone [12-14]. Some articles on current vibration devices have shown beneficial increases in bone mineral density (BMD) [15-16]; improvements in posture [17-18], balance and gait [18-20], and skin blood flow [21-23]; and positive impact on muscle activities, strength, and exercise outcomes [24-28].
Common to current vibration devices is the use of single fixed-vibration frequency and displacement height. The vibration parameters can be changed and fixed at a different level before the start of any session. The following paragraphs detail the main differences between current vibration devices and the multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies (MVDMVF) in this study.
Muscle fibers that contract rapidly are known as fast-twitch fibers. Others that contract slowly are known as slow-twitch fibers. Although a motor unit consists of only one kind of fiber type, most muscles have both fast- and slow-twitch fibers. The muscle fiber fast-twitch minimum frequency ranges from 40 to 60 Hz [29-30] and the slow-twitch minimum frequency from 15 to 30 Hz .
The amplitude of a mechanical vibration system is the characteristic that describes the severity of the mechanical energy content of a vibration input. For human muscle, the excitation frequency or frequencies of a mechanical vibration system are the characteristic that describes the muscle fiber type or types that can be elicited optimally at the twitch frequency by a vibration input. When a muscle fiber is excited at the twitch frequency, the innervated muscle contracts fully and exerts contraction energy on the attached bone. The energies contributed by the mechanical vibration and the induced muscle contraction together are responsible for the total stress on the human bone during whole-body vibration.
Excitation Frequency Factor
On one hand, single-frequency vibration systems operating within the muscle slow-twitch frequency will deliver the mechanical energy content of the vibration input plus the contraction energy of slow-twitch fibers. When the frequency is set within the muscle fiber fast-twitch frequency, the mechanical energy content of the vibration input plus the contraction energy of fast-twitch fibers will be exerted on the bone. On the other hand, MVDMVF operates at a frequency range that encompasses the muscle fiber slow-twitch frequency and fast-twitch frequency from 20 to 130 Hz and, therefore, will deliver the mechanical energy content of the vibration input plus the combined contraction energy of both slow- and fast-twitch fibers on the bone. We consider the multiple vibration frequency of the MVDMVF to be more optimal than the single frequency of the counterpart because when people walk or run, both muscle fiber types are engaged. …