Academic journal article Education

The Analysis of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers' Interpersonal Self-Efficacy Beliefs

Academic journal article Education

The Analysis of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers' Interpersonal Self-Efficacy Beliefs

Article excerpt

The history of self efficacy begins within Bandura's (1977) social learning theory that was renamed social cognitive theory in 1986. One of Bandura's major concepts in his theory is self-efficacy (Zulkolsky, 2009). Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives (Bandura, 1994, 1995, 1997). Perceived self-efficacy occupies a pivotal role in the causal structure of social cognitive theory because efficacy beliefs affect adaptation and change not only in their own right, but through their impact on other determinants (Bandura 1997). Self-efficacy beliefs are the foundations of what people think, how they feel, how they make choices, and how they motivate themselves (Burney, 2008:131).

Researches about the issue have shown that individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs struggle with obstacles more, strive more to succeed a task, get less stressed, and are more interested, insistent and patient. (Gibson and Dembo, 1984; Pajares, 1996; Bandura et. al., 1996; Ritter et al. 2001; Roberts et. al. 2001; Dorman, 2001; Chan, 2003; Zimmerman and Kistantas, 2005). According to Guskey and Passaro (1994), teacher's self-efficacy is the teacher's belief about his/her self-confidence in teaching his/her students efficiently, which Ashton (1985:142) claims to have a positive effect on student learning".

Cherniss (1993) states as a result of studies related to self-efficacy beliefs that occupations have 3 different activity dimensions such as the task domain, the interpersonal domain and the organizational domain. The task domain is related to the technical aspects of the occupational role. The task domain, which is related to activities, also includes the teacher efficacy scale (Gibson and Dembo, 1984). The organizational domain is about the political aspects of occupational role. It means gaining effective political powers for activities in the organization and making arrangements about them. The interpersonal domain consists of activities for establishing and maintaining nice, effective and beneficial relationships with coworkers and supervisors, buyers, clients or students (Brouwers ve Tomic, 2002; cited by Capri and Kan, 2006).

Brouwers and Tomic (2002) have tried to develop a "teacher self-efficacy scale" to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers within interpersonal domain, and they have identified the teaching activities in interpersonal domain under two topics; people who are interrelated to the teacher and the aims underlying the interactions between the teachers and the others. After this, researchers have configured the teacher interpersonal self-efficacy scale as consisting of the following 3 interpersonal activities; (a) managing the student behavior in class, (b) gaining colleague support, and (c) gaining the support of school administrators (Cited by; Capri and Kan, 2006:50-51).

Method

This study is formed in survey model because it aims at describing a past or current event as it is. (Karasar, 1999:77)

Aim of the Study

This study aims at revealing the interpersonal self-efficacies of social studies pre-service teachers in terms of different variables.

Limitations

This study is limited to the students who have replied the scale and who study Social Studies Department, Faculty of Education at Nigde University in 2009-2010 academic year.

Problems

What are the interpersonal self-efficacy levels of Social Studies pre-service teachers?

Sub-problems

The interpersonal self-efficacy levels of Social Studies pre-service teachers;

1. Is there a significant difference depending on gender?

2. Is there a significant difference depending on the type of education (normal education-evening education)?

3. Is there a significant difference depending on their grades? …

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