Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

Article excerpt

In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WANT) power data that are effective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAn T. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks far peak (PP) and mean power (MP) were established. Allometric exponents were applied to WAnT scores for an independent sample (n = 31) to assess external validity. PP and MP were 477.0 W (SD = 80.0) and 372. 6 W (SD = 61.5), respectively. Allometric exponents for PP and MP scaled for BM were b = 0.92 and b = 0.76, respectively, and for LBM they were b = 0. 93 and b = 0.91, respectively. In the independent sample, these exponents produced correlations between allometrically scaled PP and MP and BM of r = -.02 and r = .02, respectively. Correlations between allometrically scaled PP and MP and LBM were r = .004 and r = -.02, respectively. The allometric exponents were effective in partialing out the effect of BM for PP and MP and demonstrated acceptable levels of external validity when applied to an independent sample. The allometric exponents and normative values provide a useful tool for comparing WAnT scores in college-age women without the confounding effects of BM or LBM.

Key words: cycle ergometry, exercise, ratio scaling, WAnT normative data

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The Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT) is one of the most widely used tests for determining anaerobic power performance, because it is noninvasive, reflects the participant's anaerobic ability, and is simple and inexpensive to administer (Pankey, Bacharach, & Gaugler, 1996). The test has been reported to be reliable, valid, and sensitive (Bar-Or, 1987; Bar-Or, Dotan, & Inbar, 1977; Inbar, Bar-Or, & Skinner, 1996;Jacobs, Mahoney, &Johnson, 2003). Wingate test results have been traditionally reported in absolute units (e.g., watts) or corrected for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) using ratio scaling (W x [kg.sup.-1]BM and W x [kg.sup.-1] LBM, respectively). Ratio scaling has been widely used to express various physiological variables in terms of BM, with the assumption that the independent effect of BM has been properly controlled for; however, ratio scaling usually fails to make an appropriate adjustment for BM (Vanderburgh, 1998).

There are limitations to rado scaling. When comparing participants using unscaled data (absolute values), larger participants typically achieve a higher score (Vanderburgh & Edmonds, 1997; Winter, 1992), with a positive correlation between the variable and BM. When using ratio scaling, the scaled variable generally results in smaller participants having an advantage (Winter, 1992), resulting in a negative correlation between the scaled variable and BM. Allometric scaling has been used to scale physiological responses to various exercise modalities to provide a useful expression of a variable without the confounding influence of BM (Batterham & George, 1997; Dooman & Vanderburgh, 2000; Jacobs et al., 2003; Langeveld, Bressel, Arnett, & Heath, 2003; Nevill & Holder, 1995).

Allometric scaling is based on the relationship y = [ax.sub.b], where a and b are constants, y is the outcome variable (e.g., anaerobic power), and x is the body size variable (e.g., BM; Vanderburgh & Dooman, 2000). Therefore, allometric scaling expresses an outcome variable, y, relative to a scaling variable, x, that is free of undue influence of the scaling variable: y x [x.sub.-b]. In other words, the independent effects of the scaling variable on the outcome variables are partialed out (Vanderburgh, Katch, Schoenleber, Balabinis, & Elliott, 1996). The resulting scaled variable has a correlation with BM that approaches zero.

Allometric scaling has been shown to be an effective means of controlling for BM when assessing anaerobic power during weight-bearing exercise. …

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