Academic journal article Education

Management Philosophies of Primary School Principals

Academic journal article Education

Management Philosophies of Primary School Principals

Article excerpt


Management is planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling operations in an organization in line with purposes (Celep, 2004). Education management is the process of effectively operating, developing and innovation of an educational organization established to match the public demand for education, in line with predetermined purposes (Basaran, 1996). In effective school management, quality should be increased through the harmonization of cooperation and unification of production elements and efforts should be undertaken for the school to operate effectively (Akat, 1994). Besides, an education manager has to establish relations with and harmonize sometimes contradictory expectations of different elements situated at different levels of culture and education such as teachers, personnel, students, parents and guardians, community leaders, local administrators, central organization and politicians as well as sustain democratic management (Kaya, 1991). Establishment of a well-organized structure requires harmony and communication between the manager and the managed. This harmony and communication are established through interpersonal relations in management.

Interpersonal Relations in Management

Operation of a school in the education system has been intensely discussed since 1980s. Developments in educational and management sciences have ended a number of traditional practices in schools. Search for a new system had started (Ozden, 1999). The pressure for continuous change and innovation has been felt in schools particularly during the last fifty years (Beycioglu, 2007). Therefore, just like other organizations, educational organizations have to change in order to take advantage of this cyclic process instead of running the risk of disappearing by resisting the change. Individuals of the modern society want to be administered and managed with a modern and democratic approach (Pehlivan, 1998). This fact has made interpersonal relations considerably important in the new system. A school administrator should take the employees' needs into consideration and prioritize formal as well as informal aspects of the organization because the informal aspects focuses on the individual, groups and their relations (Bursahoglu, 2005) and requires the prioritization of the individual to the extent that is at least equal to that of the institution. The extent of consideration of this balance by the administrator determines his/her management philosophy which is demonstrated through his/her practices. The philosophy adopted by the administrator is explained by the management theories which he/she implements. The management theories have been established in the historical development of management.

Historical Development of Management

A variety of sources study the historical development of management in different periods. However, it is generally appropriate to divide the history of management into pre-scientific and scientific management periods (Efil, 1996). The period of pre-scientific management started from the times humans began to work together and continued until 1880s. This period has seen employees interact in an autocratic manner (Efil, 1996).

The works of Henri Fayol, Frederick W. Taylor, Max Webber, Luther Gulick, L. Urwick, Herbert Simon and Ernest Dale, who have left their legacy in the period of scientific management, have pioneered the way to the scientific study of management and provided important information on how the management of humans should be organized. Based on the process of its development, the period of scientific management can be sub-divided into 3 eras: classical, neoclassical and modern (Akat, 1994).

According to the Classical (Traditional) Management Theory (1880-1940), there are no reasons for a well-planned and established organization not to function well. Provided that they match the requirements, organizations will not have problems reaching their goals (Cevik, 2007). …

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