Academic journal article Annali d'Italianistica

Chronology of Events

Academic journal article Annali d'Italianistica

Chronology of Events

Article excerpt

          Chronology of Events

1919      (23 March) Founding of the Fascist movement.
1921      (January) Italian Communist Party established.
1922      (October) Mussolini forms his first government.
1923      (May-June) Fascist squadristi transformed into
            Voluntary Militia for National Security (MVSN).
1926      Promulgation of Exceptional Laws, outlawing freedom of the
            press, association, and political parties, effectively
            ending the parliamentary system in Italy and destroying
            the legal anti-Fascist opposition. The Regime inaugurates
            the Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State and
            OVRA (secret police).
1929      (February) Signing of Lateran Concordat by Catholic Church
            and the Government. Justice and Liberty is founded in
            Paris; cells established in northern and central Italy.
1935      (October) Italy invades Ethiopia.
1936-39   Italian Fascist and anti-Fascist intervention in the
            Spanish Civil War.
1938      (July-November) Racial laws enacted.
1939      (May) Italy and Germany sign Pact of Steel;
          (September) Nazi Germany invades Poland; World War II
            begins; Mussolini delays joining his Axis partner.
1940      (June) Mussolini declares war on France and Britain.
1943      (July) Christian Democratic Party founded; (10 July) Allied
            troops land in Sicily; (25 July) Fascist Grand Council
            votes no confidence in Mussolini; Badoglio named Prime
            Minister of a new government; (3 September) Allies invade
            southern Italy; (8-9 September) Armistice between Italy
            and Allies announced; the CLN (Committee of National
            Liberation) formed; (10 September) Germans occupy Rome;
            (September 1943--April 1945) [Fascist] Republic of Salo;
            (13 October) Italy declares war on Germany. … 
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