Academic journal article International Journal of Instructional Media

Integration of Multimedia Technology in Basic Computer Concept: A Study for Students' Performance of Learning

Academic journal article International Journal of Instructional Media

Integration of Multimedia Technology in Basic Computer Concept: A Study for Students' Performance of Learning

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

For many students, science is a difficult subject to master. Various studies have confirmed students' difficulties in grasping key concepts of science (1, 2). Memorizing algorithms in order to pass exams is a common nightmare for undergraduates. A common error and misconception of solving conceptual problems in science was developed (3). For basic computer concept educators, enhancing students' understanding of process skills rather than teaching merely the knowledge will be a major goal for their teaching.

Computerized learning environments are widely offered for learners to get in touch today. Many researchers pointed out the potential benefits of integrating teaching into science, such as benefits of multimedia (4, 5). These benefits include the effectiveness in facilitating mastery of the scientific concepts, process of science, and students' learning attitude. If any positive opportunities can be found to promote students' conceptual learning, scientific teachers will adopt these special methods of integrating multimedia into science.

Constructivism is a learning theory that proposes an explanation as to how knowledge is acquired. The essence of this theory lies in "knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learners." Only through real and circumstantial cases can we get in touch with knowledge. As for constructive learning, the integration of information technology into teaching helps a lot to cultivate students' learning developments (6, 7).

A recent methodology to propose computer-based learning makes great contribution for students to have the basic abilities of technology and information; also at the same time, to explore the spirit of research, to do independent thinking and to fulfill career program and life-long learning (8). Contiguity principle is an instruction principle, which states that the effectiveness of multimedia instruction increases when words and pictures are presented contiguously in time or space. Words and pictures are two primary media available for multimedia instruction (9). It is derived from a dual coding theory (10, 11 12). Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates the importance of multiple symbol systems in enhancing multimedia learning. The theory assumes that all human beings possess two distinct information processing systems: one system represents information verbally and the other represents information visually.

This study deals with our new generation's computer applications, not to limit in just what we know the learning about computer and from computer, but to elevate students' thinking-level, problem-solving faculty, and learning tools to construct their knowledge and abilities. It offers definite application instructions. The advantages of using multimedia for lecturers appear to be obvious; for example, to retain the subject materials, to increase students' interest in learning, and to have the ability to illustrate concepts in a number of ways, without the burden of writing the chalkboard for the lecturers.

Questions about why the multimedia can promote students' conceptual understanding have been addressed by many researchers (5, 14, 15). Toffler (16) regards that information technology education makes an open-minded learning, becomes multiple learning modes, absorbs creative knowledge contents, animates text media, and also imbues with extensive learning environment, multiple culture and life-long learning society. Mayer and his colleagues (9, 17) have promoted a generative theory of multimedia design. The theory proposes that materials that facilitate selection, organization, and integration of to-be-learned information are of benefit in designed instructions. Russell et al., (18) claim that using computer technology in teaching science expands the means of visualizing scientific phenomena which are very fast or slow, and that concrete visualizations could help students to overcome their alternative conceptions. …

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