Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Implementation of the Strategy Europe 2020 by the Multi-Objective Evaluation Method MULTIMOORA

Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Implementation of the Strategy Europe 2020 by the Multi-Objective Evaluation Method MULTIMOORA

Article excerpt

Introduction

After more than 50 years of ongoing integration, the European Union still faces many challenges [42]. The need of strategic reforms of social, economic, employment, education and environmental policies is therefore actual both at European and national levels. These reforms should lead to creation of a competitive knowledge society [38], [39], [40]. The Lisbon Strategy [29] was adopted in 2000 and focused on turning the European Union (EU) into "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010. At that time, the open method of co-ordination (OMC) was developed as a tool for institutionalization of systematic learning processes between the Member States of the EU [33]. However, European Employment Strategy [31], launched in 1997, gave the initial momentum for development of the OMC. Many studies were dedicated for the analysis of the practice of OMC [1], [2], [7], [25], [33], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49]. This article suggests a new procedure for implementation of the mutual learning process--one of the key elements of the OMC. Balezentis et al. [6] performed analysis of implementation of the Lisbon Strategy in the EU Member States. That study relies on the indicator system covering structural indicators.

Today it is obvious that many goals of the Lisbon Strategy for 2010 were not met. Therefore the new strategy Europe 2020 was initiated in 2010 [26]. The new strategy aims to the creation of a growing and sustainable European economy. Furthermore, greater policy coordination between national governments and the EU is an additional focal point of the strategy Europe 2020. The OMC can thus be applied in this field as an instrument of governance.

The main aim of this article is to develop the OMC practice by offering new procedures for mutual learning coordination between EU Member States, encompassing 1) a system of structural indicators, 2) application of multi-objective evaluation methods, 3) determination of the direction of mutual learning. Hence, the following tasks were raised: 1) to describe the open method of co-ordination as well as Lisbon Strategy and strategy Europe 2020; 2) to transform goals of the strategy Europe 2020 into a system of structural indicators; and 3) to apply the multi-objective evaluation method MULTIMOORA. The analysis of this article is based on data from EUROSTAT covering the period 2005-2008. The article is organized into appropriate sections, describing 1) the raison d'etre of the OMC, namely the Lisbon Strategy and strategy Europe 2020; 2) the OMC itself; and 3) application of MULTIMOORA with results of the analysis.

1. Fostering competitiveness of the European Union: the Lisbon Strategy and strategy Europe 2020

The most recent European Union strategies for improvement of competitiveness are overviewed in this section. The Lisbon Strategy covers period of 2000-2010, while the new strategy Europe 2020--that of 2010-2020.

The Lisbon Strategy was adopted at the Spring European Council in Lisbon, March 23-24, 2000 [29]. The main objective of the strategy was defined as turning the European Union into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion [20], [50].

Targets of the Lisbon Strategy are identified by either performance or policy indicators. Performance indicators refer to economic outputs while policy indicators are results of governmental decisions. Initially there were three main objectives defined, namely 1) creation of competitive, dynamic and knowledge-based economy; 2) modernization of a European Social model; and 3) paying sufficient attention to environmental issues by applying appropriate policy-mix [19].

The open method of co-ordination was defined as an instrument of the Lisbon Strategy's implementation [33], [49]. This method encompasses 1) joint identification and definition of objectives to be achieved (adopted by the European Council); 2) joint introduction of measuring instruments (statistics, indicators, guidelines); and 3) international comparison of the Member States' performance (monitored by the European Commission). …

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