Recruitment and selection are conducted to get the right persons for the right jobs of an organization. After the completion of recruitment, selection process starts. Recruitment can be defined as the set of activities an organization to attract job candidates who have the capabilities and attitudes needed to assist the organization accomplish its goals (Glueck 1978). It is the process of encouraging people to apply for actual or anticipated vacancies of the organization. The ultimate goals of recruitment are to attract and retain the interest of right candidates, and the projection of a positive image of the organization to those who come in contact with it (Weeratunga 2003 block 6:6). The success of recruitment depends upon its ability to create a large pool of competent applicants. There are numerous sources of recruitment which may be categorized into two--internal and external (Aswathappa 2008:150). The internal sources of recruitment are present employees, employee referrals. External sources of recruitment are the professional associations, newspaper advertisements, campus recruiting, unsolicited applicants, management consulting firms, and internet.
Byars and Rue (1997:172) defined selection as "the process of choosing from among available applicants, the individuals who are most likely to successfully perform a job". It is the process of gathering all necessary information about applicants and using that information to decide which applicants to employ. Once an adequate number of qualified applicants are identified through proper recruitment, the selection process begins. Selection is one of the most important functions of HRM because wrong selection of employees hampers organizational performance enormously (Dessler 2007:194). Employee selection in a country is influenced by the perception, fairness, favouritism, and internal and external pressures (Aswathappa 2008: 186, Khan & Taher 2008: 110). Selection process differs from organizations to organizations. An ideal selection process comprises some steps such as (Decenzo & Robbins 1999: 169) filling up application forms, initial screening, preliminary interview, employment tests, written examination, comprehensive interview, background examination/ reference check, medical examinations, and job offer.
Research on Recruitment & Selection Practices
The recruitment and selection process determines the decisions as to which candidates will get employment offers. The aim of this practice is to improve the fit between employees, the organization, teams, and work requirements, and thus, to create a better work environment (Tzafrir 2006). Sophisticated recruitment and selection system can ensure a better fit between the individual's abilities and the organization's requirement (Fernandez 1992). Hunter and Schmidt (1982) concluded that employment stability can be achieved through a selection procedure based on ability. Katou and Budhwar (2007) also found that recruitment and selection was positively related to all organizational performance variables such as effectiveness, efficiency, innovation, and quality. Quang and Thavisay (1999) in a study on the public sector firms of Lao found that recruitment and selection practices of the surveyed firms were interfered by the respective ministries. They opined that management succession planning should be impartial and transparent. Another study (Huang 2001) on HR practices of Taiwan unearthed that recruitment and selection took the highest percentage of time (14.6%) spent by HR departments in Taiwan. Huang (2001) also identified recruitment and selection as the 4th most important function of HRM in achieving organizational objectives whereas training and development, compensation and benefits, and HR planning were identified as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd most important functions of HRM respectively. Ariyabuddhiphongs (2003) studied recruitment and selection practices of 205 manufacturing companies of Thailand. …