Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Development of Creative Entrepreneurship: Opinion of Managers from Estonia, Latvia, Finland and Sweden/Kurybingo Verslumo Pletra: Estijos, Latvijos, Suomijos Ir Svedijos Vadovu Nuomone

Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Development of Creative Entrepreneurship: Opinion of Managers from Estonia, Latvia, Finland and Sweden/Kurybingo Verslumo Pletra: Estijos, Latvijos, Suomijos Ir Svedijos Vadovu Nuomone

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Creative industries constitute an important part of the knowledge economy through the concentration of knowledge, technology, tolerance and finances. It's an important sector of exports and employment, and often also the driver of urban and regional development. The creative and cultural industries exhibit a strong growth in European economy, but this is regionally uneven (in 2001-2006 the Baltic States were one of the areas with higher level of growth, while in Scandinavia only some regions showed higher growth rates) (Power, Nielsen 2010). In order to capitalise on the development of creativity, innovation and economic growth in the creative industries, the state can implement a wide array of support measures, including means that contribute to the development of entrepreneurial competences of creative entrepreneurs.

The creative industries sector is fragmented in that it comprises a large number of small enterprises and a small number of large enterprises. Therefore the characteristics of small enterprises apply to the creative sector. Many people working within the creative industries are self-employed and/or work part-time sometimes in addition to full time salaried occupations and many are driven by quality of life imperatives. Therefore their dedication to business management is low and they often lack time for business processes. There is also a strong sense that the creative industries are very much rooted at the local level, that they have a sense of place and that localities are important in fostering enterprise and synergies and in facilitating mutually supportive partnerships and networks (Jones et al. 2004: 134).

For the reasons mentioned above, it becomes obvious that different ways of intervention are needed in order to support the development of the creative industries. Jo Foord (2008) has divided practical interventions of creative fields into six broad categories: 1. Property and premises strategies. 2. Business development, advice and network building. 3. Direct grants and loans schemes to creative business/ entrepreneurs. 4. Fiscal initiatives. 5. Physical and IT infrastructure. 6. Soft infrastructure.

These categories are not exclusive, but they provide a profile of the main types of intervention and therefore the mechanisms used to promote and support creative enterprise in particular localities. Foord's study showed that the soft interventions of advice, skills and enterprise training for start-ups and entry level employment are dominating. Higher level interventions in technology infrastructure, international marketing and IP legal frameworks were rare (Foord 2008). In the current study, the second category of intervention "Business Development, Advice and Network Building" in terms of entrepreneurship education is investigated.

We can ask whether enterprise can be taught and is it needed. Studies have shown that there exists a link between entrepreneurship training programs and the perceptions of the desirability and feasibility of starting a business (Levie et al. 2009b: 5; Peterman, Kennedy 2003), the intentiona-lity of engaging as an entrepreneur (Pittaway, Cope 2007: 498; Volery, Mueller 2006: 13-14; Degeorge, Fayolle 2008: 23) and the business start-up activity (Levie et al. 2009a: 9; Henry et al. 2004: 265; Clercq, Arenius 2006: 350-351).

Enterprise education for creative industries is gaining momentum as a means of supporting the development of innovation, creativity and economic growth. Carey and Naudin (2006: 526) found that the role of the university is to insert the entrepreneurial spirit among students from creative fields through embedding attitudes and including entrepreneurial activities in project-based work, integration into the local creative sector, exposure to practitioners and attendance at seminars. As to the need, due to the nature of the creative sector which is so reliant on freelancers, small business ownership and a steady flow of new talent--it was considered essential for creative graduates to be leaving university with a clearer idea of working within this industry. …

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