Academic journal article Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness

Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

Academic journal article Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness

Are Male Judokas with Visual Impairments Training Properly? Findings from an Observational Study

Article excerpt

Structured Abstract: Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their maximum performance level. Methods: Observational methodology was used in 184 combats (n = 92 male senior judokas with visual impairments). A T-Patterns study (THEME) and a descriptive statistical analysis (SPSS) were conducted. Results: The results showed that most of the observed combats ended before the regulation time was over (81%). The temporal structure observed in judokas with visual impairments was as follows: total combat time: 4 minutes, 26 seconds; total pause time: 2 minutes, 38 seconds; total stand-up fight time: 1 minute, 22 seconds; and total ground fight time: 60 seconds. The number of sequences were as follows: 6.9 pause sequences with a duration of 19.6 seconds each, 12.4 work sequences with a duration of 22 seconds each, 7.9 work sequences in stand-up judo with a duration of 11.7 seconds each, and 4.5 work sequences in ground judo with a duration of 12.9 seconds each. Discussion: The combats' mean values revealed that, compared to male sighted judokas, judokas with visual impairments perform shorter work sequences and need longer pause sequences because of their impairment. Implications for Practitioners: These data indicate that the temporal structure of judo combat in athletes with visual impairments is different from the temporal structure of judo combat in sighted athletes, which indicates that the appropriate training for each group should be different. This article describes a specific temporal structure that is applicable to traditional judo training methods, fits these athletes' needs, and is available for coaches who train judokas with visual impairments.

Over the past 10 years, numerous studies have sought to analyze sports performance through the quantification of physiological parameters (Franchini, Bertuzzi, Takito, & Kiss, 2009; Little, 1991). This goal is not always easy to achieve. Quantifying the behavior of physiological variables is a relatively easy task in some athletics disciplines and cyclical sports, such as rowing or cycling. However, in the case of other sports, such as team sports and combat sports, the proper observation and standardization of these parameters is hindered by the conditions in which these sports are practiced.

Despite these difficulties, quite a few researchers have found some kind of physiological quantification: Callister et al. (1991), Cinar and Tamer (1994), Degoutte, Jouanel, and Filaire (2003), Franchini, Nakamura, Takito, Kiss, and Sterkowicz (1998), Gariod et al. (1995). Nevertheless, the data they obtained through this type of research were not conclusive enough to determine the most suitable training for each athlete. Hence, a new trend arose that involved the quantification of the effort through the analysis of the temporal structure of the match, game, or combat in each sport (Borrie, Jonsson, & Magnusson, 2002; Castarlenas& Planas, 1997). This research technique proved to be indispensable for coaches in designing appropriate training workloads for their athletes.

Thus, the time factor has been associated with the study of many sports disciplines: team sports (Matsuo, Escamilla, Fleisig, Barrentine, & Andrews, 2001), individual sports (Leblanc, Seifert, Baudry, & Chollet, 2005), and combat sports (Castarlenas & Planas, 1997; Gorostiaga, 1988; Ribeiro, Vecchio, Carratala, & De Oliveira, 2004; Saenz, Clavel, Dopico, & Iglesias, 2002). In addition, temporal parameters have been studied in other areas, such as physical education (McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991) and sports psychology (MacPherson, Collins, & Obhi, 2009).

In judo, the temporal variable determines and defines the kind of effort that is required and its distribution (effort time/pause time). …

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