Article excerpt

The following paragraphs are the correct version of the "Capture of Noriega" section in William Head's article, "Gunships and 'Dingbats:' U.S. Military Operations During Just Cause," published in the Fall 2011 issue of Journal of Third World Studies (JTWS), Volume XXVIII, No. 2, pp. 98-99.


Noriega stayed on the run until Christmas Eve, when he was cornered in the Nunciature Vatican Embassy in Panama City where he received temporary asylum. There ensued a ten-day standoff during which General Thurman had U.S. troops encircle the Embassy and Psychological Operations units blast the complex with loud and rancous rock-and-roll music playing on huge speakers. Noriega finally surrendered on January 3, 1990, following assurances he would not be harmed. No sooner was he in custody than he was spirited back to Miami, Florida.

Upon his arrival in the United States Noriega was held in custody until April 1992 when he was tried on eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering and money laundering. …


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