Academic journal article Kadin/Woman 2000

Three Dimensional Transitional Relationships: A Study on Indian Women entrepreneurs/Uc Boyutlu Gecisken Iliskiler: Hindistanli Kadin Girisimciler Uzerine Bir Calisma

Academic journal article Kadin/Woman 2000

Three Dimensional Transitional Relationships: A Study on Indian Women entrepreneurs/Uc Boyutlu Gecisken Iliskiler: Hindistanli Kadin Girisimciler Uzerine Bir Calisma

Article excerpt

Introduction

Entrepreneurship is crucial for overall development and economic sustenance of any nation. In the recent years, it gained importance with the participation of women. Women today are more progressive and play a vital role in terms of fulfilling their economical needs and attaining social status. Moreover, eentrepreneurship development directly contributes to the global positioning of many developed countries. It is always asserted that individuals might be more inclined to pursue entrepreneurship, if they believe that they possess skills, such as higher education, that are necessary to function effectively in an entrepreneurial environment (Gupta & York, 2008). In accordance with the above lines, it has been presumed that emergence of women entrepreneurs in a society mainly depends on changing social, psychological, economic, religious, cultural, technological and political dimensions, which invoke a positive effect in their economic participation of any developed and developing countries. Indian history is full of instances about individual entrepreneurs whose creativity has led to industrialization and globalization of many nations in the world. Surprisingly, research studies on women entrepreneurship found that women entrepreneurs are the key players in any developing country, particularly in terms of contribution to economic sustenance and development (Baker, Aldrich & Liou, 1997). Research on the differences between men and women indicated that there are significant differences in their career choices, and theoretical models which described the career paths of men are not entirely appropriate for women (Neergard et al., 2005; Gupta et al, 2008). These literatures signified that women's role in economic development and also the differences in terms of career paths which may be due to the perceptional aspects with respect to gender differences. It is very evident from the above literatures that women entrepreneurship could not be generalized with gender as it differs in terms of its perspective. Moreover, the concept and practices of women entrepreneurship are in the burgeoning stage with regard to many developing countries across the world. A thorough literature review which has been carried out in the present study could possibly explain the gaps in terms of perceptions about entrepreneurial process amongst women entrepreneur and also exhibit new paradigms which could foster the growth of women entrepreneurship development.

Review on Women Entrepreneurship

A longitudinal study conducted by Gatewood, Shaver, and Gartner (1994) found female entrepreneurs have higher internal attributions for starting their ventures than males. In another study conducted by James and Paul (1979) on 122 Black, White, Hispanic and American Indian women entrepreneurs found that the responses of both minority women entrepreneurs and those women entrepreneurs in the general populace differed significantly on tests measuring achievement, autonomy, aggression, conformity, independence, benevolence, and leadership. Hisrich and Marie (1981) in an in-depth study tried to find out the demographic characteristics, their motivation and business problems of 21 women entrepreneurs. It was reported that majority of them were first born in their family, married (71%), had at least two children (55%) and between 31 -41 years old (48%). In addition to that 38% of the respondents' fathers were self-employed and more than 50% of their mothers also worked outside the home. Research studies conducted by Roomi and Parrot (2008) indicated that there are barriers to development and progression of female entrepreneurs, resulting in limited spatial mobility and a dearth of social capital for female entrepreneurs. Early studies exploring why females become entrepreneurs found they gave similar responses to their male counterparts such as need to achieve and independence (Cook 1982; Schwartz, 1976). Another study reports that no differences exist with women entrepreneurs in comparison with men regarding personal goals such as independence, achievement, and economic necessity (Hisrich, Brush, Good, & De Souza, 1996). …

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