Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Implantation Failure among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Implantation Failure among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

Article excerpt

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins found in numerous consumer products. In experimental animals, BPA increases embryo implantation failure and reduces litter size.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).

METHODS: We used online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure urinary BRA concentrations in 137 women in a prospective cohort study among women undergoing IVF at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center in Boston, Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure, accounting for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. Implantation failure was defined as a negative serum [beta]-human chorionic gonadotropin test ([beta]-hCG < 6 IU/L) 17 days after egg retrieval.

RESULTS: Among 137 women undergoing 180 IW cycles, urinary EPA concentrations had a geometric mean (SD) of 1.53 (2.22) [mu]g/L. Overall, 42% (n = 75) of the IVF cycles resulted in implantation failure. In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of implantation failure with higher quartiles of urinary BPA concentrations [odds ratio (OR) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 2.95], 1.60 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.78), and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.84, 5.31) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.06).

CONCLUSION: There was a positive linear dose-response association between BPA urinary concentrations and implantation failure.

KEY WORDS: bisphenol A, embryo implantation, fertility, human, reproduction, women. Environ Health Perspect 120:978-983 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104307 [Online 6 April 2012]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous chemical widely used in the manufacture of poly-carbonate plastics found in some water bottles (Brede et al. 2003), the lining of food and beverage cans and water pipes (Bae et al. 2002), and some dental sealants and composites (joskow et at 2006; Sasaki a al. 2005). BPA can also be used in the manufacture of thermal receipt paper (Biedermann et al. 2010; vom Saal and Myers 2008). Widespread use of BPA-containing consumer products has led to ubiquitous exposure to BPA in the general population (Vandenberg a al. 2007). In the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), BPA was detected in > 90% of urine samples obtained from a representative sample of U.S. residents (Calafat a al. 2008). Detectable concentrations of BPA have also been measured in human follicular fluid (1-2 [micro]g/L) and amniotic fluid (1-9 [micro]g/L) (Ikezuki et al. 2002), suggesting that exposure may occur as early as the periconception period.

During the past several decades, infertility rates have increased, and approximately 10-15% of couples in the United States and other developed countries are infertile (Fritz and Speroff 2011), in part because of delayed childbearing. An important determinant of reduced fertility is failed implantation, which is thought to account for 50-75% of preclinical pregnancy losses in humans (Macklon et al. 2002; Norwitz et al. 2001). Implantation is orchestrated and regulated by a very carefully synchronized interplay of hormonal signals and feedback loops, making it potentially vulnerable to chemicals such as BPA that may disrupt endocrine signaling (Berger et al. 2010; Ma et al. 2003; Varayoud et al. 2011).

Although BPA has been known to have estrogenic properties since 1936 (Dodds and Lawson 1936), the biological activity of BPA is rather complex and still not fully understood. More recently in in vitro studies, BPA was found to have measurable activity in multiple assays involving signaling pathways for estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormones (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / World Health Organization 2010; Lee et al. …

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