Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

A Comparison of Demonstration and Tutorials in Photo Editing Instruction

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

A Comparison of Demonstration and Tutorials in Photo Editing Instruction

Article excerpt


A very significant point in the teaching-learning process is the design of teaching-learning experiences. Scientists, educators, and instructional designers carry out vast numbers of studies to enable them to answer questions such as "What kind of learning environment should be designed?", "Which strategies and methods should be employed?", "Which educational materials should be used?", and "What should the role of the instructor be?"

In response to economic and social change, countries all over the world are formulating policies that incorporate the use of information and communications technologies (ICT) in education (Vanderlinde, & van Braak, 2011). There is a widespread belief that computer skills are and will continue to be increasingly necessary for every individual to participate effectively in society, the economy, and the workforce. In all likelihood our world will increasingly require the use of computers and computer-related technologies. Therefore, effective and efficient instruction in computer use is highly important. Unfortunately, there is little research or documentation on the teaching strategies employed in end-user computer education and training (Phelps, Hase, & Ellis, 2005). Indeed a current literature search on computer instruction shows an insufficient number of results. Clearly more studies are needed on the planning and conducting of computer instruction.

It is crucial to examine how we can benefit from learning environments and how we can design learning environments to maximize student learning. Cognitive load theory is one of the theories that deals with the development of effective instructional materials and learning environments. Basically it grounds itself on visual and auditory information channels that are partially independent from each other (Kilic, 2006). According to the cognitive load theory, eliminating excessive load on auditory and visual channels is crucial so that information can be transferred to the long-term memory (Sweller, 1994).

The cognitive load theory states that human working memory is limited and that it can deal with only two or three elements at a time. This limited type of memory may be affected by three types of load: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane. The intrinsic cognitive load cannot be reduced or modified by instructional design because it involves the difficulty of the content. Extraneous cognitive load derives from instructional materials that are used to present information. This type of cognitive load is generated by the instructional format used. High extraneous cognitive load occurs when the instructional material is poorly designed. Changing instructional materials to facilitate learning is one way to reduce extraneous cognitive load (Adulseranee, 2007). When both intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads are high, the working memory will be overloaded. Cognitive overload may be defined as the confusion of learners because of too many options, components, and ways (Murray, 2001). A decrease in learner performance is expected during high cognitive load (Paas, Renkl & Sweller, 2004).

Anxiety is a pervasive feeling of uneasiness based on real or imaginary stimuli that can produce secondary reactions, either physiological or psychological, or a tertiary reaction combining both the psyche and biological domains (Fisher, 2008, p. 18). Although multiple definitions have been introduced for anxiety and to test anxiety, there is broad agreement that anxiety can be classified into two components, state anxiety and trait anxiety. It is important to understand these concepts because one can delineate differences in state and trait anxiety. State anxiety can be altered because it refers to how a person copes with and responds to different levels of anxiety and stress in his/her life (Prato, 2009, p. 10). Trait anxiety is unchangeable and is how an individual reacts to anxiety on a day-to-day basis. …

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