Academic journal article Indian Journal of Psychiatry

A Bibliometric Analysis of Bipolar Affective Disorders Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Output Benchmarking

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Psychiatry

A Bibliometric Analysis of Bipolar Affective Disorders Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Output Benchmarking

Article excerpt

Byline: B. Vogelzang, C. Scutaru, S. Mache, K. Vitzthum, B. Kusma, O. Schulte-Herbruggen, D. Groneberg, D. Quarcoo

Background: Bipolar affective disorder (BaD) has a great impact on health systems worldwide. Although bibliometric studies have been done on this subject, these studies did not do an analysis of the contents of papers, the cooperation between countries, or of the names currently used to describe the condition. Furthermore, the number of publications since the last bibliometric study has doubled. Aim: This study was to examine the recent developments in the field, explore main topics/subject areas of the top 10 authors in this research field, and to compare diagnosis-defined data between International Classification of Diseases, 10 [sup]th edition (ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Materials and Methods: Using distinct search terms, the Web of Science database developed by the Thompson Reuters Institute of Scientific Information was scanned for relevant items published between 1900 and 2008. Results were analyzed using scientometric methods and density-equalizing calculations. Results: We found an important increase of publications on the subject over the last decade. Most published studies came from North America and Europe, while the countries cooperating with each other were comparable to other areas of medical research. Although there has been an increase in publications on BaD (m=3.3 publications per year in the last decade), the number of works using the term bipolar disorder (BD) was considerably higher (m=141.8 publications per year in the last decade). We found that the subject areas, genetics and pharmacology were focuses of research for the 10 most prolific authors, all of whom where psychiatrists. Conclusion: Research interest in BaD is rising. Reflecting the two main disease classification systems, DSM and ICD, both terms BD and BaD are used in research, with a preponderance of the former. The research of the most prolific authors engages genetic and pharmacological questions.

Introduction

Bipolar affective disorder (BaD) is a multifactorial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. [sup][1] The same condition is described under slightly different clinical classification systems: [sup][2] The International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 refers it as "bipolar affective disorder" [sup][3] and the Diagnostic and Statistical manual for Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR as "bipolar disorder" (BD). [sup][4] According to the ICD-10, BaD is characterized by two or more episodes in which the patient's mood and activity levels are significantly disturbed. [sup][3] This disturbance can on some occasions consist of an elevation of mood and increased energy and activity levels (hypomania or mania) and on others of a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression). [sup][3] The DSM-IV-TR classifies the condition as BD, according to the course of the disorder as type I (with severe manic or mixed episodes and a major depressive episode, usually requiring hospital admission) and type II (where there have been no manic or mixed episodes, but one hypomanic episode and a major depressive episode). [sup][4]

Although manic and depressive symptoms were described by Hippocrates and Aristotle, the existence of a condition with both manic and depressive features was first documented by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, who lived in Turkey from 30 to 150 AD. [sup][5] He hypothesized that both "melancholy" and "mania" had a common origin in "black bile." This condition has had different names in the last 200 years. In 1854, Jules Falret described the condition as "folie circulaire" (circular insanity), and Emil Kreaplin described it as "manic-depressive psychosis" in the early 1900s. [sup][5] This was the most widely accepted term in the 1930s and appeared in the ICD for the first time in the ICD-5 in 1938. [sup][6] In the ICD-6 of 1948 [sup][7] and the ICD-7 of 1955, [sup][8] it was changed to "manic-depressive reaction," while in the ICD-8, the term "manic depressive psychosis" was once again used in 1965. …

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