Academic journal article Madhya Pradesh Journal of Social Sciences

Development, Issues and Concerns of Secondary and Senior Secondary Education in Madhya Pradesh

Academic journal article Madhya Pradesh Journal of Social Sciences

Development, Issues and Concerns of Secondary and Senior Secondary Education in Madhya Pradesh

Article excerpt

Secondary education is a crucial stage of the school system. It is a gateway to higher education and a terminal stage for many school leavers who join the world of work. Importance of secondary education is also seen in the context of global competitiveness. The industry, business and service sector demand semi-skilled higher quality of manpower. And secondary education is the single largest supplier of work force to this sector. Therefore, growing demand for secondary education requires a thorough probing into dimensions of access, demand and efficiency of the system. The paper deals with these issues and also how government and non-government sectors are making efforts for the development of secondary and senior secondary levels of education in Madhya Pradesh.

Demographic Characteristics

Madhya Pradesh is the 2nd largest State in the republic of India, with nearly six per cent of the country's population and stands at 25th position in the level of literacy. The density of population is 196 per square kilometre, with 19 per cent of tribal population. The sex ratio is 920. Out of the total population 26 per cent reside in urban areas and 74 per cent in rural areas. The percentage of scheduled tribe population to total population as per 2001 Census (Census: 2001) works out to 20.27 per cent and the percentage of scheduled caste population to total population is 15.17 per cent. The population of Madhya Pradesh continues to increase at an average annual rate of growth of two per cent per year. Every year nearly 1.4 million people are added into the state's population.

Educational Scenario of Madhya Pradesh

The Government of Madhya Pradesh recognises the need for faster education development. Their strategies include encouraging investment in education and achieving higher levels of educational development. The State literacy rate as per census 2001 is 63.7 per cent, which is close to the national literacy rate of 64.8 per cent. While the female literacy rate has considerably improved over the last decade, a great disparity persists in the literacy rates of males and females, which is 76.1 per cent and 50.3 per cent respectively.

Development of School Education in the State School Education in Madhya Pradesh

In Madhya Pradesh the secondary and senior secondary schools are managed in three ways: (a) government schools managed and funded by state education department, tribal welfare department, central government and local bodies; (b) government aided schools managed and funded by government as well as by private providers; and (c) private un-aided schools managed and funded by private providers.

Access to Education

Access to school education is reviewed at all the levels of education as lower level serves the upper level of education. The expansion of upper-primary level of education depends upon expansion of primary education in the same manner expansion of secondary education depends upon expansion of upper-primary education and visa-versa. The access is assessed on the basis of indicators like proportion of population served with schools by distance, number of schools by per lakh of population, location and gender wise distribution of schools, etc. These indicators reveal the facilities of access to different levels of school education. It is assessed on the basis of the data mentioned in the All India Educational Surveys.

According to the Sixth All India Educational Survey by NCERT (1993) distribution of primary schools and upper primary schools within the habitation in Madhya Pradesh were unevenly distributed for all the categories of population, however, the Seventh All India Educational Survey (2002) reveals that the uneven distribution was reduced. During 1993 (sixth survey) there were 85 per cent of primary schools and 31 per cent of the upper-primary schools within the habitation. It refers that there were near about three primary schools for one upper-primary school. …

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