Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Shamanic-Like Journeying and Psi-Signal Detection: I. in Search of the Psi-Conducive Components of a Novel Experimental protocol/Schamanenahnliche Reisen Und Die Entdeckung Des Psi-Signals: I. Auf der Suche Nach Psi-Begunstigenden Komponenten Eines Neuartigen Experimentellen protokolls/Viajes Chamanicos Y Deteccion De Senal Psi: I. En Busca De Los Componentes Favorables a Psi En Un Nuevo Protocolo

Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Shamanic-Like Journeying and Psi-Signal Detection: I. in Search of the Psi-Conducive Components of a Novel Experimental protocol/Schamanenahnliche Reisen Und Die Entdeckung Des Psi-Signals: I. Auf der Suche Nach Psi-Begunstigenden Komponenten Eines Neuartigen Experimentellen protokolls/Viajes Chamanicos Y Deteccion De Senal Psi: I. En Busca De Los Componentes Favorables a Psi En Un Nuevo Protocolo

Article excerpt

Bem and Honorton (1994) asserted that, "Historically, psi has often been associated with meditation, hypnosis, dreaming, and other naturally occurring or deliberately induced altered states of consciousness" (p. 5). Perhaps the most widely used technique in this context is the ganzfeld ("total field") which may be defined, in broad terms, as a "homogeneous perceptual environment" (Bem, 1993, p. 102). The pioneers of the ganzfeld technique (Braud, Wood, & Braud, 1975; Honorton & Harper, 1974; Parker, 1975) investigated various states such as hypnosis, dreaming, meditation, and relaxation that might be considered psi-conducive.

Storm and Rock (2009a) contended that it is pertinent to explore stimulus conditions that might produce psi effects at least as strong as those elicited in the ganzfeld condition, particularly if those stimulus conditions are less complex than the ganzfeld. They based their argument on the likelihood that the ganzfeld does not facilitate relatively more psi than nonganzfeld noise-reduction techniques because it does not produce sufficient levels of visual imagery (which is related to the psi signal). Indeed, due to some possibly inherent ceiling effect in the ganzfeld design, Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010) have demonstrated that the ganzfeld psi effect, though significant in itself, is not significantly higher than the significant mean effect size of the nonganzfeld noise-reduction studies. Consequently, it may be pertinent to investigate other possibly psi-conducive methods such as shamanism because it is a reputed technique in indigenous communities for producing

strong visual content and mentation that may, at least on occasion, be of a paranormal nature.

Shamanism may be defined as "a family of traditions whose practitioners focus on voluntarily entering altered states of consciousness in which they experience themselves, or their spirit(s), travelling to other realms at will and interacting with other entities in order to serve their community" (Walsh, 1989, p. 5). Ostensible altered states of consciousness (ASCs) induced by shamanic practices are typically referred to as "soul-flight," "ecstatic journeying," or simply "shamanic journeying" (Krippner, 2002). Arguably the most common technique used to induce shamanic states is sonic driving (i.e., monotonous drumming).

The aforementioned social-role aspect of shamanic journeying typically involves the shaman accessing "information that is not ordinarily attainable by members of the social group that gave them privileged status" (Krippner, 2002, p. 962). For example, the shaman may wish to access information regarding the geographical location of a plentiful food source that will provide nourishment for the members of his or her social group. Shamans ostensibly access this information during ASCs using psi (e.g., clairvoyance; Rogo, 1987). For example, Krippner (1984) reviewed psi research concerning tribal shamans and emphasized that shamans cultivate ASCs with the aim of attempting to "locate lost objects, foretell the future, communicate with someone at a distance, or heal an injured person" (p. 4).

Krippner (1984) concluded that, "the shamanistic tradition can yield information that will be helpful in solving some of the enigmas that currently exist in the understanding and control of psi" (p. 4). Indeed, numerous reviews (e.g., Rogo, 1983a, 1983b, 1987) of previous anthropological research suggest that shamanic techniques are associated with psi phenomena such as ESP (e.g., precognition). Furthermore, previous research has also investigated the effect of shamanic techniques on PK. For example, Saklani (1988) tested the PK ability of five adult Shamans in Garhwal Himalaya and reported that the participants were "able to influence plant germination and protect seeds from the deleterious effects of saline" (p. 60).

The above mentioned link between shamanism and psi suggests that active mental processes might facilitate the access of psi signals. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.