Gupta RG. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

Article excerpt

Gupta RG. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Academic Press, Elsevier; 2011,1202pp, $250 (hardcover), ISBN 9780123820327.

As a trained toxicologist, I realized early on the complexity of the specialized field of reproductive and developmental toxicology. Understanding the toxicological impact and changes occurring at the interface of the complicated 3 component system: parent, placenta, and fetus, is by no means an easy task. This book, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, provides the most intricate and comprehensive overview of both historical and current knowledge of reproductive and developmental toxicology. The book is divided into 15 sections that address various aspects of this field of toxicology. Each section is further comprised of individual chapters that cover detailed background and recent information pertinent to the discussed topic. While the primary focus of the book is on human species, it also provides unique coverage of the toxicological impact on other organisms, ranging from those used in toxicological testing to wildlife species. The reference list at the end of each chapter offers an invaluable resource for up-to-date information on a wide array of reproductive and developmental toxicology topics. The book is in hardcover, well indexed, and packed with figures and tables, with an additional elegant color plate section at the end of the book.

The first 2 sections of the book focus on general topics that pertain to reproductive and developmental toxicology, providing solid background introductions to reproductive anatomy and physiology, pharmacokinetics of the mother and fetal compartments during pregnancy, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models for reproductive and developmental toxicity, and the excretion of medical as well as environmental pollutants into breast milk. The book then transitions into a comprehensive review of various in vitro and in vivo models assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity. A detailed description of the internationally recognized guidelines for toxicity testing is provided, with elaborate explanation of the different available models, both validated and nonvalidated, as well as the novel techniques of in silico and CAESAR (computer-assisted evaluation of industrial chemical substances according to regulation) methods. Commonly used animal models including zebra fish, C.elegans, as well as primate models are further explained with particular emphasis on neuro- and immune-toxicity aspects. An in-depth discussion of the in vitro biomarkers of developmental neurotoxicity is provided in a separate chapter, followed by detailed description of in vivo biomarkers of reproductive and developmental toxicity, with particular emphasis on examples of biomonitoring of exposure to pesticides.

The next 8 sections of the book are dedicated to an in-depth description of reproductive and developmental toxicity of a wide array of toxic agents. The compounds discussed include nanoparticles and radiation; gases and solvents; cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drugs of abuse; food additives; pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals; metals; pesticides and environmental contaminants; phytotoxicants; and biotoxins. Each chapter starts with a comprehensive introduction that provides a historical background as well as basic knowledge of the chemical addressed. I enjoyed the systematic coverage of the toxicity of individual chemicals, particularly the detailed in vitro as well as in vivo studies addressing the risk and mechanism of such toxicity. The chapters are further enriched by summary tables that recapitulate toxicity reports, proposed mechanisms, or effects observed in experimental animals. A distinctive feature of this book is dedicating a few chapters to the toxicities of select compounds (eg, melamine and cyanuric acid) in livetstock, poultry, cats, and dogs.

Section 11 of the book includes coverage of special topics highly relevant to the field of reproductive and developmental toxicology. …