Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Outcomes

Article excerpt

Introduction

Today, changes in organizational environments, their resultant innovations, and flexibility are emphasized, which necessarily calls for voluntary behavior from members of an organization. Accordingly, an organization should be capable of shifting its members' attitudes and behaviors which act for organizational development from egoistic behaviors. With regard to this issue, many researchers have paid attention to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

Organizational citizenship behaviors come in a variety of forms such as loyalty, helping others, and organizational compliance (Podsakoff et al., 2000) and organizations benefit employees who are willing to contribute their efforts and abilities to the organizations even though that is not officially required of them. This contribution of organizational citizenship behavior to organizations has received much attention in the business area (Todd, 2003).

The concept of organizational citizenship behavior appeared over two decades ago in the field of organizational behavior. Since then, there has been considerable research, primarily in the US, enabling diverse understanding and interpretations of this concept (e.g., Borman and Motowidlo, 1997; Bukhari et al., 2009; Joireman et al., 2006; Podsakoff et al., 2000). Recently, there has also been a growing interest in OCB in the fields of marketing and strategy. However, to the best of the researchers' knowledge, most studies on OCB have focused on finding factors which affect OCB, mainly organizational justice and characteristics of leaders (e.g., Asgari et al., 2008; Karriker and Williams, 2009). Despite the fact that characteristics of organizational structure can affect members' attitudes and behaviors (Schminke et al., 2000), little research has focused on the relationship between the factors of organizational level and OCB. In particular, studies using a comprehensive approach to examine OCB, including the effect of organizational procedural features, organizational structural features, and leadership are scarce.

To overcome the limitations of previous studies and to improve the value of practical research on OCB, this study aimed to analyze and investigate OCB and its outcome using a comprehensive approach. The main purpose of the study was to investigate employees' perceptions on organizational justice (procedural justice), leaders' behaviors (transformational leadership), and organizational structure (complexity) and its effects on OCB. Indeed, this study investigates the effects of OCB on employees' job satisfaction.

Theoretical Background and Hypotheses Organizational Citizenship Behavior and its Antecedents

Organizational citizenship behavior is employees' extra efforts which are not officially required by the organization (Organ, 1988) and discretionary acts by employees (Kohan and Mazmanian, 2003). The two major components of OCB are compliance, which indicates employees' intention to follow the organizational rules, and altruism, which means employees' voluntary behaviors to help others and to work (Organ and Ryan, 1995; Williams and Anderson, 1991).

Studies on OCB can be divided into those on finding antecedents which could have an impact on OCB and the resulting factors which are caused by the effects of OCB. In the initial stage, OCB studies had a focus on examining the effects of its antecedents until research efforts began to gradually identify the results of OCB related with the tangible performance of an organization (Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1994).

To date, several factors such as job satisfaction, justice, and support or trust from the organization and leaders were suggested by many researchers for increasing employees' OCB (e.g., Ackfeldt and Coote, 2000; Bateman and Organ, 1983; Farh et al., 1990; Moorman, 1991; Neihoff and Moorman, 1993; Organ and Lingl, 1995; Puffer, 1987; Smith et al., 1983; Van Dyne et al. …

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