Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

How Benefits and Challenges of Personal Response System Impact Students' Continuance Intention? A Taiwanese Context

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

How Benefits and Challenges of Personal Response System Impact Students' Continuance Intention? A Taiwanese Context

Article excerpt

Introduction

The Personal Response System (PRS) (Griff, & Matter, 2008), also known as the audience response system (Bunz, 2005) or student response system (Bunce, VandenPlas, & Havanki, 2006), is a voting system (Draper, & Brown, 2004) that allows teachers to initiate a multiple-choice question exam using a computer and then displaying it on screen for the class; the students, in turn, anonymously respond to the questions through clickers. PRS allows the teacher to collect and summarize the answers in a statistical format on screen. This allows teachers to quickly assess student feedback and immediately make the necessary teaching adjustments to achieve better student learning effects. PRS has been studied extensively since a new generation of infrared PRS became available in 1999 and subsequently used after 2003 (Abrahamson, 2006).

The latest PRS review published by Kay and LeSage (2009) covers research studies from 2000 to 2007, including several earlier review papers by Judson and Sawada (2002), Fies and Marshall (2006), Simpson and Oliver (2007), and Caldwell (2007). These PRS review papers have provided rich meta-analyses of PRS literature derived through a qualitative approach, facilitating the further understanding and development of current practices of PRS in schools. Although a quantitative meta-analysis review remains the ideal method, this is not a feasible option due to the lack of empirical PRS studies in literature. Nevertheless, the abovementioned qualitative review papers agree on the considerable benefits and potential challenges of using PRS as well as its future research opportunities. Based on these, an empirical research that can validate the findings of previous studies is feasible and advantageous.

Four related PRS issues are included in the review conducted by Kay and LeSage (2009). First, specific benefits and challenges are good factors derived from the qualitative literature analysis, but these may need empirical studies to confirm the impact of the use of PRS. Second, while Kay and LeSage (2009) identify technology-based challenges in their research, few PRS studies actually involve technology-related theories in discussing ways by which to establish PRS usage in classrooms. The quantitative technology acceptance model (TAM) meta-analysis presented by King and He (2006) revealed that technology is a potential moderating factor that can influence several model relationships. TAM is a popular technology-related theory, which proposes perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as the two core influences of the actual use of a technology through the mediating effect of intention to use. Bhattacherjee (2001) tested the expectation confirmation theory (ECT), another technology-based theory used to predict usage. ECT compares the users' experiences and expectations and examines the effect of confirmation/disconfirmation on continuance usage. Third, Kay and LeSage (2009) suggested the expansion of PRS use in social science subjects and K-12 classrooms. For the interest of the current research, it is more favorable to obtain generalized research results by expanding the samples from a small class or single university to a larger regional or country-wide scope. Finally, Kay and LeSage (2009) studied listed systematic research with reliability and validity analyses as the first direction in relation to further studies in this research area. A rigorous research method for empirical studies is needed to achieve the goal of a systematic research with quantitative reliability and validity analyses.

To address the four issues, a path model on PRS usage is formulated, after which a rigorous empirical study is conducted, with practical relevance on PRS perceptions using college students in Taiwan as representative sample. The comprehensive procedure of structural equation modeling (SEM) for validating the measurement model and the model fitting (Gefen et al. …

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