Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Situated Poetry Learning Using Multimedia Resource Sharing Approach

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Situated Poetry Learning Using Multimedia Resource Sharing Approach

Article excerpt

Introduction

Many students find poems difficult to understand since poetry often expresses rich and semantic life experiences using few words. Therefore, assisting learners in understanding profound meanings of a poem is quite important. Previous researches suggested that students may experience a positive learning effect by using situated learning theory (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Hemngton & Oliver, 1999; Horz, Winter, & Fries, 2009; Hwang, Shi, & Chu, 2011). When learners are situated in an environment similar to what a poem describes, they can understand what the poet meant easily, thus enhancing learning performance (Chen, 2008; Shih, Tseng, Yang, Lin, & Liang, 2012; Su, 2007). Hence, in such an environment, learners could benefit from the learning activity that they can not only browse the content of a poem but also its multimedia resources. By carrying handheld devices, which feature wireless communication capabilities, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), smart phones, and laptops, such scenario can be realized.

Previous studies show that using multimedia in courses increases students' motivation to learn and bolsters an appreciation of poems (Cai, 2003; Chen, 2008; Lo, Zhang, Lin, Tseng, & Chen, 1999; Sun & Cheng, 2007). A proverb also states that, "A picture is worth a thousand words." As information technology rapidly evolves, an increasing number of multimedia resources regarding Chinese poetry have become more accessible via the World Wide Web. Some of these resources are elaborately tailored to help explain or recite a specific poem, and the others are created to help describe a specific entity (such as people, buildings, or locations) depicted in poems. With the aid of these resources, students could better understand poems (Sun & Cheng, 2007).

To achieve the aim of Web-based e-learning, scholars showed the benefit of using an ontology-based approach for online resource management and reuse (Bedi, Banati, & Thukral, 2010; Wu, Mao, & Chen, 2009). However, the researchers were not concerned with the combination of learning contents and learning resources. Online learning resources could be unavailable or delayed, which may not result in significant positive learning performance. In Sun & Cheng (2007), the researchers also indicated that the use of rich media in an e-learning course like Chinese poetry has a significantly positive effect on learning achievement over the use of media that is low in richness. Therefore, it is important to offer available, accessible and trustworthy multimedia resources (e.g., high rich media) for students while learning. Furthermore, in an outdoor environment, due to the limitations of portable learning devices and the bandwidth of network environments, learning requirements or learning preferences (e.g., resource subject, type, or size) need to be concerned while retrieving resources for learners. Therefore, an interesting issue concerns how to locate appropriate poems and multimedia resources for learning assistance based on the context information.

However, resource repositories (e.g., Flickr, BaiduMp3, YouTube) have their own indices as well as data structures for assisting users to rapid access to resources. With the aim of facilitating fast, reliable and accurate online trustworthy resource retrieval, it is necessary to fetch and collect multimedia resource information relating to poems for index construction. Hence, three sub-problems occurred; that is, the collection of multimedia resource information, the construction of an index from the contents and multimedia resources, and the retrieval of poems and resources from the index.

To cope with this problem, this study proposes Ubiquitous Poetry Learning Scheme (UPLS) which includes three phases: (1) Prefetch-based Resource Information Collection; (2) Poetry Multimedia Resource Index Construction; and (3) Context-based Resource Retrieval. …

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