Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Prenatal and Postnatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Body Mass Index in Childhood in the CHAMACOS Cohort

Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Prenatal and Postnatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Body Mass Index in Childhood in the CHAMACOS Cohort

Article excerpt

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been associated with increased body weight and fat deposition in rodents.

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether prenatal and postnatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percent body fat, and obesity in 9-year-old children (n = 311) in the CHAMACOS longitudinal cohort study.

METHODS: BPA was measured in spot urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy and from children at 5 and 9 years of age.

RESULTS: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with decreased BMI at 9 years of age in girls but not boys. Among girls, being in the highest tertile of prenatal BPA concentrations was associated with decreased BMI z-score ([beta] = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.87, -0.07) and percent body fat ([beta] = -4.36, 95% CI: -8.37, -0.34) and decreased odds of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.91] compared with girls in the lowest tertile. These findings were strongest in prepubertal girls. Urinary BPA concentrations at 5 years of age were not associated with any anthropometric parameters at 5 or 9 years, but BPA concentrations at 9 years were positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and overweight/obesity at 9 years in boys and girls.

CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with other cross-sectional studies, higher urinary BPA concentrations at 9 years of age were associated with increased adiposity at 9 years. However, increasing BPA concentrations in mothers during pregnancy were associated with decreased BMI, body fat, and overweight/obesity among their daughters at 9 years of age.

KEY WORDS: bisphenol A, BMI, CHAMACOS, children, obesity. Environ Health Perspect 121:514-520 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205548 [Online 15 February 2013]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production chemical used in the manufacture of poly-carbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and other industrial polymers. BPA can be present in a wide range of consumer products, including polycarbonate water bottles and food storage containers, epoxy-lined food cans, dental seal-ants, and thermal receipts. (Geens et al. 2011; Vandenberg et al. 2007). Exposure to BPA is almost ubiquitous, with > 90% of Americans having detectable urinary concentrations of BPA (Calafat et al. 2008). Although the main route of exposure to BPA is thought to be oral via diet, dermal and inhalation exposure are also possible (Biedermann et al. 2010; Stahlhut et al. 2009; Zalko et al. 2011).

BPA is an endocrine disruptor that may act as an estrogen at doses within the range of human exposure and may also interfere with androgens, thyroid hormones, and cell signaling pathways (Wetherill et al. 2007). Multiple studies in rodents have found that prenatal and early postnatal BPA exposure is associated with increased body weight and fat deposition (Akingbemi et al. 2004; Hiyama et al. 2011; Howdeshell et al. 1999; Miyawaki et al. 2007; Nikaido et al. 2004; Patisaul and Bateman 2008; Rubin et al. 2001; Somm et al. 2009; Wei et al. 2011; Xu et al. 2011). However, some studies find no associations (Newbold et al. 2007; Ryan and Vandenbergh 2006; Ryan et al. 2010) and others find decreased body weight (Alonso-Magdalena et al. 2010; Honma et al. 2002; Nagel et al. 1997; Nakamura et al. 2012; Negishi et al. 2003; Tyl et al. 2002). Although most studies have examined only perinatal exposure to BPA, Akingbemi et al. (2004) compared perinatal and chronic postnatal exposure with BPA in male rats and reported that perinatal exposure at 2.4 [mu]g/kg/day was associated with increased body weight in adulthood but postnatal exposure (from weaning to adulthood) was not.

A small number of studies have examined the association of BPA and obesity in humans. Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that both children and adults with urinary BPA concentrations in the second, third and fourth quartiles had higher odds of obesity and larger waist circumference than those in the lowest quartile (Carwile and Michels 2011; Shankar et al. …

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