Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

Motivations and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Safari Hunters: A South African Perspective

Academic journal article Academy of Marketing Studies Journal

Motivations and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Safari Hunters: A South African Perspective

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

For many people, leisure, recreation and vacation activities are related, and therefore travelling even long distances to participate in a preferred activity is not unusual (Chang & Gibson, 2011). For example, Bryan (1977) observes that, as anglers become more specialized, they tend to use their vacations to travel to other destinations to further practice and develop their angling skills.

Hunters likewise seem to travel considerable distances to participate in a wished-for hunting experience. For example, in 2009, 62% of overseas clients who visited South Africa came from Northern America, 17% from Europe, and 18% from Scandinavia (Carroll, 2010). South Africa also attracts hunters from countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Croatia, Vietnam, and the United Arab Emirates. European hunters, particularly those from Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, Denmark, and the Benelux countries, are avid travellers. Popular destinations are Hungary, Poland, other Eastern European countries, and Scandinavia (Brainerd, 2007). In follows that providers of the South African hunting safari have to compete with a variety of countries for the patronage of hunters from abroad. South African safari hunting (also known as sport hunting or trophy hunting) refers to legitimate and organized hunting activities undertaken by individuals, mostly from abroad, whose primary objective is securing trophies from killed animals, birds, and reptiles (Report to the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2005). Trophies are often presented as skull mounts, shoulder mounts, full mounts, tusk mounts, and/or rugs.

An understanding of individuals' motivations (in this instance, those of hunters) is important (O'Connell, 2010; Oh, Uysal & Weaver, 1995; Kruger & Saayman, 2010) for a number of reasons. Firstly, motivation is a fundamental force behind all human behavior as it arouses, directs, and integrates behaviour (Crompton, 1979; Iso-Ahola, 1982; Fodness, 1994). Because motivation is both an impelling and a compelling force behind all behavior (Crompton, 1979; Fodness, 1994) it serves as an initial point in studying tourist and travel behavior (Devesa, Laguna, & Palacois, 2010). Secondly, motivation drives individuals' choice and could therefore help explain their preference for participating in certain leisure activities and their choice of destination for this purpose (Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang & O'Leary, 1996). It seems reasonable to argue that an understanding of hunters' motivations could also be the starting point in understanding why they participate in this activity and why they travel to South Africa for this purpose. Thirdly, individuals have different needs, and hence a misunderstanding of their intrinsic motivations could hamper the design of appropriate offerings and experiences (Beh & Bruyere, 2007; Crompton & McKay 1997). The provision of less than optimum offerings will impede need fulfillment and consequent customer satisfaction and loyalty (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). The latter typically leads to re-visits and the spreading of positive word-of-mouth communication about the experience (Anderson, 1998; Huo & Miller, 2007). This in turn contributes to the organization's long-term economic success (Akama & Kieti, 2003). Lastly, organizational success is enhanced by effective marketing activities such as segmentation, product and image development, and better-focused promotional activities (Fodness, 1994; Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Identifying and prioritizing hunters' motivations are therefore likely to facilitate the effectiveness of other marketing activities (Crompton & McKay, 1997).

Authors such as Oh et al. (1995) point out that in addition to understanding the impelling ("push") and compelling ("pull") factors of motivation, it is also important to understand the relationship between these motivations. Such knowledge can help destination marketers determine the most successful coupling of motivational factors into tourism bundles (Goodrich, 1977). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.