Academic journal article Southeastern Geographer

Foreign-Born Latino Labor Market Concentration in Six Metropolitan Areas in the U.S. South

Academic journal article Southeastern Geographer

Foreign-Born Latino Labor Market Concentration in Six Metropolitan Areas in the U.S. South

Article excerpt

Compared to established immigration gateways, we know relatively little about foreign-born Latino labor market experiences in new immigration destinations. This study's objective is to examine labor market experiences of the foreign-born Hispanic labor force in five southern metropolitan statistical areas as relatively new Latino destinations, compared to Miami as an established gateway. Utilizing data from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey, this study examines foreign-born Latino labor market concentration patterns and associated characteristics. Results indicate high concentrations of foreign-born Latinas in generally low-skill, low-wage industries such as construction, restaurants, building services, and landscaping across nearly all MSAs. While education, English proficiency, and length of time in the U.S. are significantly associated with these patterns, newer Latino immigration destinations demonstrate higher levels of industrial concentration.

KEY WORDS: Latino, immigration, labor market, concentration, the South

Comparando con entradas de inmigracion ya establecidas, sabemos relativamente poco sobre experiencias de mercado laboral latino nacido en el extranjero en nuevos destinas de inmigracion. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las experiencias de mercado laboral de la fuerza laboral hispana nacida en el extranjero en cinco areas estadisticas metropolitanas del sur como relativamente nuevos destinos latinos, comparado con Miami como una entrada ya establecida. Utilizando datos del American Community Survey de 2006-2010, este estudio examina los patrones de concentracion y caracteristicas asociadas del mereado laboral latino nacido en el extranjero. Los resultados indican una alta concentracion de latinos nacidas en el extranjero en generalmente industrias de bajo adiestramiento y de bajos salarios, tales como la construccion, restaurantes, servicios a edificios, y jardineria a lo largo de casi todas las areas estadisticas (MSAs). Mientras la educacion, fluidez en ingles, y extension del tiempo en los EE.UU. estan significativamente asociados con estos patrones, los nuevos destinas de la inmigracion latina demuestran niveles mas altos de concentracion industrial.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Latino, inmigracion, mercado laboral, concentracion, el Sur

INTRODUCTION

From 2000 to 2010, Latinos accounted for the majority of the United States' growth (56 percent), and the Hispanic population grew 43 percent itself over the decade (Pew Hispanic Center 2011, p 1). (1) In particular, several states in the U.S. South have experienced dramatic Hispanic population growth, such as Mabama (145 percent), Tennessee (134 percent), and North Carolina (111 percent) (Pew Hispanic Center 2011). In fact, due to the fast growth of the Hispanic population between 1980 and 2000, several metropolitan areas in the South have been labeled as places experiencing "hypergrowth" in their Hispanic populations, including Atlanta (995 percent), Raleigh-Durham (1,180 percent), and Charlotte (932 percent) (Suro and Singer 2002). One reason for such dramatic growth is that foreign-born Latinos have acted to fill the demand created by the region's economic diversification and thriving sectors, such as manufacturing, biomedical research, and food processing (Mohl 2003; Chaney 2010; Popke 2011), in addition to development-related jobs to support the rapidly expanding population, such as construction and landscaping (Kasarda and Johnson, Jr. 2006).

While our knowledge of Hispanic immigration is largely concentrated in established immigration gateways, labor market experiences in new Latino immigration destinations, especially urban settings, are relatively understudied. The objective of this study is to examine foreign-born Hispanic labor market concentration in five metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the U.S. South as new Latino immigration destinations in comparison to Miami as an established immigration gateway. …

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