Academic journal article Journal of Health Population and Nutrition

Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among HIV-Positive Individuals in India

Academic journal article Journal of Health Population and Nutrition

Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among HIV-Positive Individuals in India

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

India is home to 1.2 billion people and is the second-most populous country in the world. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in India is mainly spread through heterosexual intercourse. The presence of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), irregular use of condoms, frequency of sexual contact, and age at sexual initiation are some of the factors affecting it. According to recent estimates of the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India had 2.2 million HIV-positive persons in 2008, with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.29% among adults (1).

Importance of nutrition is well-established in HIV infection (2-4). Poor nutritional status is a strong predictor of mortality. Even after controlling for CD4+ cell counts, a weight loss of >66% of ideal body-weight was linked to the timing of death in AIDS patients (5-7). Although there have been a number of studies assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practices relating to antiretroviral therapy (ART), not many studies have assessed these keeping nutrition as their main focus (8-10). This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices of PLHIV.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data for this cross-sectional descriptive study were collected from a total of 400 PLHIV (245 male, 144 female, and 11 transgender) registered at the ART centre of Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Shahadra, Delhi, India. The permission to carry out the study was obtained for a period of 12 weeks. Taking this stipulated timeframe, data were collected from these 400 PLHIV. The inclusion criteria for the study were to enrol PLHIV who attended the ART centre over a period of three months, were more than 21 years of age, had the record of CD4 estimations within the last 30 days from the date of data collection, and agreed to answer the questions relating to nutrition. Infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant/lactating mothers, those not registered at the centre, and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded.

Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, India. Details of the study procedures were given on the volunteer's information sheet (in English and Hindi language). The features pertaining to benefits, confidentiality, and voluntary participation were explained, and written informed consent was obtained from all the subjects.

Sociodemographic information was gathered using a preset multiple-choice questionnaire. A close-ended, pretested questionnaire comprising three sections: knowledge (15 multiple-choice questions), attitude (15 statements), and practices (15 multiple-choice questions) was used in eliciting KAP information.

Scoring

The scoring mechanism for each section was developed by the researchers. For knowledge, each correct answer was given a score of 1 while each wrong answer was given a score of 0. Each question in the knowledge section only had one correct answer and three wrong answers. This way, a respondent could score a maximum of 15 and a minimum of 0 in this section. For attitude, a score of 1 was given to 'disagree', a score of 2 was given to 'don't know', and a score of 3 was given to 'agree'. There were eight negatively-framed statements for which reverse scoring was done which means a score of 1 was given to 'agree', 2 to 'don't know', and 3 to 'disagree'. This way, a respondent could score a maximum of 45 and a minimum of 15 in the attitude section. For practices, each 'yes' response received a score of 1 while each 'no' received a score of 0. Therefore, a respondent could score a maximum of 15 and a minimum of 0 in the practice section. The final KAP score was calculated by summing up the scores of the knowledge, attitude and practices sections individually. The total KAP score ranged from 15 to 75. The higher the score, the better were the respondent's nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practice. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.