Academic journal article Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal

Too Old to Work? the Influence of Retraining on Employment Status for Older Immigrants to Canada

Academic journal article Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal

Too Old to Work? the Influence of Retraining on Employment Status for Older Immigrants to Canada

Article excerpt

Abstract

Research has established that immigrants who possess host-country human capital fare better on employment outcomes relative to those with foreign credentials. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of retraining on the employment status of older immigrants to Canada. Using the three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic regression models are conducted to test whether the probability of being employed is significantly related to retraining, while controlling for gender, age at arrival, immigration category, visible minority status, marital status, dependents in the household, highest level of education obtained outside of Canada, language proficiency, recognition of foreign work experience, health, and social networks. The results reveal that retraining at wave 2 is significantly related to the probability of being employed at wave 2. Longitudinally, a different pattern emerged in which the probability of being employed at wave 3 is greatest among those who did not pursue retraining at wave 1. Gender does not moderate the association between retraining and employment status for any of the waves.

Resume

Selon la recherche, les immigres qui ont acquis dans leur pays-hote des qualifications en termes de capital humain s'en tirent mieux dans le domaine de l'emploi que ceux qui n'ont que des titres de competence etrangers. Le but de cet article est d'examiner les effets d'une nouvelle formation sur la situation professionnelle de personnes d'un certain age qui immigrent au Canada. A partir des trois vagues de collecte de l'Enquete longitudinale des immigrants au Canada (ELIC), nous avons realise trois modeles de regression Iogistiques transversaux et Iongitudinaux pour tester dans quelle mesure la probabilite de trouver un emploi est liee de maniere significative A un recyclage professionnel, ceci en tenant compte du genre, de l'age au moment de l'arrivee au Canada, de la categorie d'immigrant, du statut de minorite visible, de la situation maritale, des personnes dependantes de la famille, du niveau le plus eleve d'education atteint hors frontieres, des competences linguistiques, de la reconnaissance de l'experience professionnelle etrangere, de la sante et ales reseaux sociaux. Les resultats revelent que, Iors de la vague 2, ceux qui ont acquis une formation ont eu significativement plus de chances de trouver un emploi. Longitudinalement, la tendance qui apparait est differente: dans ce cas, ceux qui n'ont pas tente de se recycler Iors de la premiere vague ont eu plus de possibilites d'embauche Iors de la troisieme. Quant A l'association entre formation complementaire et la situation professionnelle, le genre ne joue de role dans aucune des trois vagues.

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of retraining on the employment status of immigrants who arrived in Canada in old age (i.e., 55 years and older). Few studies exist on the labour market integration of older immigrants to Canada. A palpable rationale for the present paper is therefore the deficiency of knowledge in a significant field of inquiry. Policies that support the labour market participation of older workers, both immigrant and native-born, is significant for society through sustaining the producer-consumer ratio and for the individual by assisting individuals to stay active and utilizing their skills and knowledge (Saunders and Maxwell 2003). Given the ageing of the Canadian population, policies need to be developed that encourage individuals to continue working into their "retirement" years.

The ageing of the Canadian labour force is a function of fertility rates being below natural replacement levels, longer life expectancy, and the ageing of the baby boom generation (Fougere et al. 2004; McMullin et al. 2004). The labour shortage is further exacerbated by two demographic trends. First, Canadian youth currently spend a greater amount of time completing their education and entering the workforce, relative to previous decades (McMullin et al. …

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