Academic journal article International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship

Transition from Motivation to Behaviour: Examining the Moderating Role of Identification (ID) on the Relationship between Motives and Attendance

Academic journal article International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship

Transition from Motivation to Behaviour: Examining the Moderating Role of Identification (ID) on the Relationship between Motives and Attendance

Article excerpt

Executive summary

For decades, motives (e.g. aesthetics, drama, escape) have been studied as a key predictor of sports consumer consumption behaviours. Interestingly, the results from such studies reveal findings that are at odds with widespread scholarly assumptions about motives. That is, despite the intuitive plausibility that motives should influence sports consumer behaviour, such as attendance or attendance intention, real-world examples and research evidence highlight the separation between theory and practice (i.e. the extent to which motives actually influence sports consumer consumption behaviours).

One possible explanation for this lack of variance in attendance decisions explained by motives is the existence of other factors, such as sports consumer Team Identification levels, which may improve the predictive capabilities of motives. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to advance motives research by examining how Identification moderates the motive-sports consumer behaviour relationship.

A cross-sectional survey-based research design was employed for the empirical investigation. The context of this study is collegiate sports in the US. A Division I-A football team was selected as the focal team. College students from an NCAA Division I-A university were the target population. A judgmental sampling method was used to collect the sample for this study. A total of 207 college students responded (male and female responses were 39.13% and 60.87% respectively). To assess motives and Team Identification, two previously developed and validated scales were employed: the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC) and the Points of Attachment Index (PAI).

The results demonstrate a good overall fit of the measurement model for the modified MSSC. The CFA results on the PAI also indicate satisfactory overall fit. The results show a reasonable overall fit of the hierarchical CFA for Identification and all of the second-order and third-order loadings were high and statistically significant. Only two motives were significantly related to attendance intention. The motives of Drama, Escape, Knowledge, Social, Skill and Added Value were not significantly associated with attendance intention. Finally, the relationships between attendance intention and seven of the eight motives (excluding Aesthetics) significantly varied according to the level of Identification. In sum, we generated two hypotheses: (a) the relationship between motives and attendance intention would range from weak to moderate; and (b) the overarching construct of Identification would moderate the influence of motives on attendance intention. Overall, the results support our research hypotheses.

Eight motives are included in this study and together they account for only marginal amounts of variance in attendance intention. This result is consistent with past research efforts. It also confirms our observation that, despite the intuitive logic that motives should influence attendance intentions, the fact remains that, by themselves, they have yet to demonstrate a moderate-strong relationship with attendance. A third factor, such as Team Identification, should therefore be considered when examining the role of motives on sports consumer behaviour. Ultimately, Team Identification is a factor that significantly influences consumer behaviours. Thus, if a sport organisation is going to accurately understand the significance of their motives data in predicting future sports consumption behaviours, then Identification needs to be included in their data collection efforts because this factor alters the nature of relationship between motives and behaviours.


Motives have been frequently investigated as a key predictor of sports consumer behaviour (e.g. Mahony et al, 2002; Trail & James, 2001) and one commonly held assumption is motives influence sport attendance or attendance intentions. …

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