Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Computer Based Assessment Acceptance: A Cross-Cultural Study in Greece and Mexico

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Computer Based Assessment Acceptance: A Cross-Cultural Study in Greece and Mexico

Article excerpt


Learning Management Systems (LMS) became a valuable tool for teachers and learners worldwide. The increased use of LMS drove to globalized educational software such as Blackboard and Moodle, that help teachers to provide high quality LMS to their learners. Globalization can also be found in computer based test and assessments such as Test Of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Many students around the world take these exams and are prepared using simulated Computer Based Assessment systems.

Computer Based Assessment (CBA) is an integral service which comes along with LMS or alone. It provides many advantages to teachers and learners. Learners can find CBA very useful because they can practice in any lesson or specific task they want in order to ameliorate their weaknesses and to evaluate their performance (Joosten-ten Brinke et al., 2007; Kaklauskas et al., 2010). On the other hand, educators savor other advantages such as: test security, reduction of time and cost, automation of records and distance learning/marking (Gvozdenko & Chambers, 2007; Smith & Caputi, 2007).

Despite the increased use of CBA, many learners are against using CBAs (Frankola, 2000). Thus, Researchers are trying to identify the factors that affect learners to use CBA. Researchers, based on models regarding Information Technology (IT) acceptance, e.g., Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), developed many models to explain learner's acceptance and intention to use learning management systems (LMS) or CBA. Regarding CBA, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) (Figure 1) is a model that includes many important variables to explain learner's acceptance on CBA (Terzis & Economides, 2011).

However, CBA's globalization questioned the invariance of CBAAM in other cultures around the world. Cultural differences that exist among different countries may affect CBAAM's effectiveness or the factors that affect learner's intentions to use CBA.

Thus, this paper aims to examine possible differences in computer based assessment acceptance between different cultures by applying CBAAM to Greek and Mexican students.

Section 2 presents previous studies that shed light on CBA acceptance or cultural effect on IT acceptance. Section 3 describes the methodology. Section 4 provides the data analysis and the results. Finally, sections 5 and 6 discuss the results and present the conclusions of this study respectively.

Literature review

Computer based assessment acceptance

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is the first and the most dominant model regarding IT acceptance (Davis, 1989). Davis developed TAM based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen 1975). Another model that explains user's intentions is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991). Taylor and Todd (1995) presented a hybrid model which combined TAM and TPB. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTUAT) came to integrate previous models regarding IT acceptance (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & F. D. Davis, 2003).

LMS and CBA acceptance studies such as CBAAM have adopted variables from these previous models. From TAM, CBAAM and other studies have adopted Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) (Landry, Griffeth & Hartman, 2006; Lee, 2008; Ong, Lai & Wang 2004; Ong & Lai, 2006; Padilla-Melendez, Garrido-Moreno & Del Aguila-Obra, 2008; Teo, 2009; Van Raaij & Schepers, 2008; Yi & Hwang, 2003). From Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTUAT), CBAAM and other LMS acceptance studies used Facilitating Conditions (Teo, 2009; Teo, Lee, & Chai, 2008) or Social Influence in their research models (Van Raaij & Schepers, 2008; Wang, Wu & Wang, 2009).

Furthermore, CBAAM included variables which were found to be more relevant with the context of learning and assessment acceptance. …

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