Transparency is considered a key requirement in today's world. As global as it sounds, transparency is also particularly desirable in the Arab world in the wake of the current grassroot activism that is otherwise known as the Arab Spring. With all the calls to right corruption and dissinate transparency, universities should help promote a transparent mindset across their rules and regulation, conduct and leadership in their capacity as pioneer academic institutions where the faculty play a significant role in this regard.
Jiri (1995) finds that transparency is the process of rendering the decision-making closer to the citizens rather than to be restricted at the top of the pyramid. In the same vein, Florini defines transparency as being at the opposite end of secrect; ha other words, she sees transparency as a means to uncover hidden undisclosed actions (1998). Cotterrell (1999) adds another dimension by highlighting the need for transparency to provide access to information htat is of conern for the general public; transparency should also demonstrate citizen ability to be engaged ha the political decisions while highlighting the government's responsibility for the soundness of the legal proceses. Vaughn (2000) finds that transparency pertains to the free flow of information so that the related processes and data become accessible to citizens. Kitchum (2000) highlights the fact that the power of transparency can be manifested through the following three pillars of good governance: transparency in decision-making, community participation and accountability. As for Meyer (2003), transparency has been rarely used historically within the institutional framework; transparency pertains instead to the mutual trust among the various stakeholders to encourage decision-making. Finally, Koppal (2004) believes that transparency and openness include the briefing the public on the outcomes.
In light of the above, it can be discerned that transparency includes the free flow of information so that the institutional and operation consideration become accessible by the parties concerned--regardless of whether or not they were insiders to the institutions or among those in direct contact with them. transparent regimes have clearly defined procedures and measures to delineate the process of decion-making; they also possess, at the same time, open communication channels that lead to all destinations. Applying administrative practice that indicatse transparency might involve solutions and improvement of the quality of service so as to keep abreat with development via applying modern management notion like transparency (Al-Kayed, 2003).
The significance of transparency rests with the fact that it functions as an open communication channel between the stakeholders and officials; it is a key instrument to right rampant corruption across the developing countries. Transparency is likewise necessary for the work of administrative and political organizations and among their leaderships on the one hand, and among workers and leaders on the other. Hence, an organization or institution would no longer be obscure when it comes to outlining its tendencies and objectives worker-wise. Otherwise, the result would then be a diminishing sense of belonging and ownership among these workers--for openness, honesty and clarification of information enhance loyalty among staff and increase their productivity (Tarawneh & Adhaileh, 2010).
Green & Wood (2001) as well as Wongchanglaw (2002) refer to a group of requirements that need to be satisfied for transparency to be realized; these include democracy, transparent laws, rules and regulations, citizen awareness and education on their rights and stakeholder interaction while allowing citizens ot observe, understand and evaluate employee performance. It entails as well further coordination among agencies concerned with human resources and administrative development; transparency also requires an improvement of the information network across all agencies and institutions as well as to enhance the role of financial and administrative oversight bodies. …