Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Effects of Verbal and Visual Feedback on Anticipation Timing

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Effects of Verbal and Visual Feedback on Anticipation Timing

Article excerpt

One of the important ways practitioners can influence the learning process is by providing individuals with feedback about their actions. Feedback is a general term used to describe the information a learner receives about the performance of a movement or skill. That information can be available from both internal and external sources (Coker, 2004). Knowledge of results (KR) is one example of feedback from external sources. Traditionally, KR has been thought of as a powerful learning variable and study findings support this view (Sparrow, 1995). Feedback in the form of KR can be given verbally, nonverbally, and visually. Learning theorists have been exploring for many years how information is provided to the learner in the form of verbal instructions or visual demonstrations (Newell, Morris, & Scully, 1985).

Coaching with visual and verbal feedback is a method in which athletes are presented with visual and verbal cues that, when applied accurately, help enhance their performance and their ability to self-correct. Coaches most often use verbal cues to give the athletes they are training direct feedback. In many cases verbal feedback is backed up by indirect visual feedback consisting of images of training or competitions that are shown to the athletes after the event.

The ability to anticipate or predict forthcoming events accurately is a critical feature of performance in many fast-ball sports and has long been identified as an essential attribute of the skilled performer (Bartlett, 1947; Magill, 2004; Schmidt & Lee, 2005). Highly skilled athletes are believed to possess the ability to perceive visual information from an opponent's motion pattern and to use that information to anticipate subsequent events (Shim, Carlton, Chow, & Chae, 2005). For anticipation-timing tasks, especially the use of visual information during movement, execution is the most valuable source of information. However, it is also possible that learners can use visual feedback after the movement, in the form of KR, to improve the programming of subsequent movements (Abahnini, Proteau, & Temprado, 1997; Blouin, Bard, Teasdale, & Fleury, 1993; Zelaznik, Hawkins, & Kisselburgh, 1983). According to Khan, Lawrence, Franks, and Elliot (2003), motor command modifications before the initiation of movement--that is the offline processes--would be likely to lead to improvements in accuracy in situations in which movement time is too short to allow visually based corrections to be performed during movement execution.

In the literature, there are also some studies in which researchers have reported the effects of verbal feedback on tasks that require anticipation (Magill, Chamberlin, & Hall, 1991; Ramella, 1984; Ramella & Wiegand, 1983). These researchers showed that, for the most part, verbal feedback enhanced and improved the learning of anticipation tasks.

A number of researchers have shown that feedback techniques are not all equally effective in facilitating learner achievement and that there are specific feedback techniques that are more effective than others for certain educational objectives (Dwyer & Arnold, 1976). Therefore, the objectives in this study were (a) to find out whether it was verbal feedback or visual feedback in the form of KR that was more beneficial for the learning of an anticipation-timing task, and (b) to determine whether or not the order in which verbal feedback and visual feedback were received had an effect on the learning of an anticipation-timing task.



The participants in this study were 25 male and 25 female high school students. They ranged in age from 15 to 17 years, with a mean of 16.02 years (SD = 0.52). None of the participants was an athlete and none had previous experience with the task presented in the study. Although the procedure of the experiment was explained to them, in order to avoid bias the participants were all unaware of the detail of the purpose of the experiment. …

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