Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Regional Development in the Context of Exploitation of Mineral Wealth of a Country

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Regional Development in the Context of Exploitation of Mineral Wealth of a Country

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

The importance of raw materials is evident from the increased current prices of some of the main commodities and the impact of this on economic communities, government, regions and their development and links directly to living standards. The State, the amount of raw materials utilisation and their economic appreciation, cannot hide away from respecting the global price of raw materials, which (at the first sight) do not have anything in common (either technically, technologically, geologically, with the variation in price. The direct impact on economic regions, sometimes positively, but mainly negative, sooner or later will be reflected in everyday life. In every municipality, there are a number of unique mines (separate from the number of mines which extract construction raw materials or materials for chemical use or energetics). As an example of such a unique mine would be the mines which extract magnesite, talk or uranium. In addition, further, these can include the sources of renewable energy, such as geothermal resources, which has worldwide application and, thanks to modern technologies, their influence on environment should be a driving force to develop the mining industry and significantly affects urban development in the region. The absence of a regional Raw Material Policy means there is little understanding of how these mines could be exploited to support the development of any given region.

2. THE CURRENT SITUATION IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

The current legislation divides the process of raw material utilisation in two categories: proprietary and non-proprietary. The main characteristic of non-propietory mines is that they are privately owned as a land. The proprietary mines are part of the mineral wealth of the country and, according to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, belong irrefutably to the State. The effectiveness of the use of state ownership is ensured through the use of the rationing. As the raw mineral sources are non-renewable, the Government administrates a rationed use of the raw material sources as a dominion of the Slovak Republic (SR), respecting the principles of sustainable development.From the strategic point of view, the Raw Materials Policy treats the raw materials as a primary source and input for of production processes and, therefore it is considered as an important and absolute necessity for the continued development of the economy of the Slovak Republic. According Article 4 of the Constitution of the SR, the internal inland raw materials wealth is solely owned by the Government. As a non-renewable resource, it needs to be preserved and efficiently utilised. This is one objective of the Raw Materials Policy, which defines the objectives of society in the utilisation of internal inland sources of raw materials. The policy also covers the long term needs for the economic and social development of society, taking into consideration the environmental aspects of sustainable development, starting with geological research and concluding with the use of verified sources of raw materials (Cavender, 1992). Slovak Republic Raw Material Policy in the area of minerals is described in the (Government resolution, 1995) and its actualisation is from the year 2003. The Mining Law is the collection of standards, which govern the conditions of detection, research, mining, ownership and the utilisation of raw materials. It determines the relationships between the state, the land owners, where the mines are located, and entrepreneurial organisations in mining industry. It designates which raw materials can be detected and mined, and the conditions under which this can happen. In addition, it designates the person responsible for the execution of these procedures and other related duties. The mining law still includes these specifications, despite the fact that its development is always closely tied in with social institutions, economics, and scientific and technological progress. …

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