Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

A Simulated Interprofessional Rounding Experience in a Clinical Assessment Course

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

A Simulated Interprofessional Rounding Experience in a Clinical Assessment Course

Article excerpt


Interprofessional education and practice is viewed as an essential component of health professions education. Interprofessional education occurs when 2 or more professions learn with, from, and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care. (1,2) The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and the Association of American Medical Colleges include interprofessional health education and practice as strategic areas for member engagement. (3-5) Common competencies for interprofessional education include team organization/function; assessment and enhancement of team performance; intrateam communication; leadership; conflict resolution and consensus building; and setting common patient care goals. (6) One approach to achieve these interprofessional competencies in a clinical team is through simulation exercises.

High-fidelity simulators are a unique learning tool increasingly used in health professions education. A human patient simulator is a mannequin interfaced with a computer program that can produce physiologic responses to student actions including changes in the mannequin's simulated heart rhythm, respiratory rate, pulse, and heart sounds. Human patient simulators are used to simulate direct patient care and allow learning in a low-stakes environment. (7) Human patient simulators have been used successfully to train teams of licensed healthcare practitioners to deliver safer and more effective care; however, little is known about the use of simulation to train health professions' students in interprofessional healthcare teams. (8,9)

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) encourages the use of simulation as an active-learning technique according to Standard 11. Standard 12 encourages curricular development surrounding the provision of patient-centered care within an interprofessional healthcare team. (10) In addition, the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) outcomes also highlight practicing pharmaceutical care in collaboration with an interprofessional team. (11) The development of an interprofessional inpatient rounding experience using human patient simulators fulfills these curricular standards and outcomes using an active-learning strategy.

Limited information regarding use of human patient simulators in pharmacy education has been published in the literature. (12-15) These findings describe the use of simulation related to blood pressure, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) in pharmacotherapy and clinical assessment courses. A single publication described using human patient simulators to teach interprofessional team skills to pharmacy students. (16) However, this simulation did not use other health professions' students; instead, other people played the role of nurses and physicians. All of these simulation exercises were associated with positive outcomes related to attitudes about simulation or increased knowledge after the simulation.

At the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), a simulated interprofessional rounding experience was developed. This program was integrated into the curriculum for all third-year pharmacy students as well as selected medical and physician assistant students. The objectives of the study were to: (1) establish the simulated interprofessional rounding experience pilot program, (2) determine the effect of the experience on student attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration in the clinical setting, (3) determine student self-perceived confidence in clinical skills related to the simulation, (4) determine student satisfaction with a simulated interprofessional rounding experience, and (5) determine mean scores on clinical performance of the interprofessional team during simulation.


Incorporation of this interprofessional simulation into the required curriculum for pharmacy students provided for the integration of pharmacotherapy and teamwork skills. …

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