Academic journal article The Journal of Rehabilitation

A Review of Supported Employment Services for People with Disabilities: Competitive Employment, Earnings, and Service Costs

Academic journal article The Journal of Rehabilitation

A Review of Supported Employment Services for People with Disabilities: Competitive Employment, Earnings, and Service Costs

Article excerpt

Supported employment services are widely known to be an effective strategy for enhancing employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Representative models such as IPS (Individual Placement and Support), DPA (Diversified Placement Approach), traditional Vocational Rehabilitation on-the-job supports, and modifications of IPS and DPA have been developed and implemented in various settings with various populations. These models are described in the following paragraphs.

The IPS model was developed as an evidence-based system for providing employment services (Bond, 2004). The six tenets of the IPS model are: (1) commitment to competitive employment; (2) eligibility based solely on client choice; (3) rapid job search; (4) well-integrated treatment and employment teams; (5) attention to client preference in job search; and (6) individualized employment support. A measurement tool, the IPS Fidelity Scale, was developed and tested to assess consistent implementation of IPS programs (Bond, Becker, Drake, & Vogler, 1997). The IPS Fidelity Scale consists of 15 items. The scale was initially piloted at 27 sites and was found to assess consistently the extent to which programs followed the IPS model for providing supported employment services.

The DPA model of supported employment was first described by the Chicago-based Thresholds Rehabilitation Program (Koop, et al., 2004). DPA assumes that in order to meet client needs, rehabilitation should include a wide range of work placements that are responsive to the diverse capabilities, needs, and preferences of clients. The eleven principles of DPA are: (1) participation in work readiness training occurs before and between jobs; (2) work readiness is assessed while clients are on work crew training; (3) caseloads are small; (4) weekly team meetings ensure information sharing; (5) non-vocational services provide support; (6) there is weekly contact between client and case manager; (7) job placements include work readiness crews, volunteer positions, sheltered workshops, agency-run businesses, group placements, and individual placements with or without a job coach; (8) a diverse pool of community jobs is developed and maintained so that clients may change jobs as needed; (9) clients generally move from work crews to group placements, sheltered work, or an agency-run business; (10) job placements are flexible, but not time-limited or transitional; and (11) work is the focus of the rehabilitation program.

A DPA Fidelity Scale was developed to assess adherence to the DPA model. The Scale consists of 20 items. There are three items related to Work Readiness, four items related to Staffing, six items related to Integration of Services, and seven items related to Array of Job Options. The development and use of a fidelity scale contributes substantially to the measurement of the consistency and quality of supported employment services provided to people with disabilities.

For the State-Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Program, supported employment is a vehicle providing integrated employment opportunities for people with the most severe disabilities. It promotes placement in an integrated setting for the maximum number of hours possible, based on the unique strengths, resources, interests, concerns, abilities, and capabilities of the individual. On-the-job supports and supported employment services are among the wide variety of services offered through vocational rehabilitation. The complement of VR services available includes: assessment, diagnosis and treatment of impairments, vocational rehabilitation counseling and guidance, college or university training, occupational/vocational training, on-the-job training, basic academic remedial or literacy training, job readiness training, augmentative skills training, miscellaneous training, job search assistance, job placement assistance, on-the job supports, transportation, maintenance, rehabilitation technology, reader services, interpreters, personal attendant services, technical assistance, information and referral, and other services (Vocational Rehabilitation Services Manual from New York, 2007). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.