Academic journal article Journal of Business Economics and Management

Post-Event Visits as the Sources of Marketing Strategy Sustainability: A Conceptual Model Approach

Academic journal article Journal of Business Economics and Management

Post-Event Visits as the Sources of Marketing Strategy Sustainability: A Conceptual Model Approach

Article excerpt


In recent years, destination marketers have focused on event marketing. There has been increasing awareness of the potential financial benefits of events to local tourism marketing development (Getz 1997; Chalip 2006; Berridge 2007; Taks et al. 2009; Crowther 2010b; Fourie, Spronk 2011). Events have been part of a set of destination attractions and new tools to attract tourists (O'Brien 2006; O'Brien, Gardiner 2006). From a tourism marketing perspective, events can be divided into two types; the first type is the repeat event, which is hosted in the same place many times in succession; examples of such events are Rio de Janeiro's Carnival, New Orleans' Mardi Gras celebration or, on a more modest scale, Canada's celebration of Groundhog Day in Wiarton, Ontario. The second type of event is the non-repeat or one-time event, which, after being hosted once in a place, will not return for many years, if ever. Most non-repeat events are influential events such as the Olympic Games, the Asian Games, World Expo and the World Cup of soccer, etc. These events are difficult to bid for and often require immense inputs of resources, but are promoted as generating certain profits from tourism for the host cities during the event activity period. Such promotional activity notwithstanding, some host cities were encumbered with great debts after the completion of their hosting of non-repeat events. It is therefore necessary that destination marketers pay attention not only to the profit gained in the short, heavily funded period of the event itself but should also focus on capitalizing upon the benefits generated by the event on a long term basis. Drawing on the existing literature, this study proposes that sustainable tourism profits yielded from non-repeat events are mainly rooted in the positive effects that such events have on the brand image of the destination. Given that the destination image is comprised of the comprehensive cognition of the destination, potential customers to cities which benefit from a non-repeat event will have their desire/intentions to visit influenced in a positive way. Therefore, the relationship between events and destination brand image is the key part of research into the long-term tourism effect of non-repeat events. Existing literature concentrates mainly on event tourism, i.e., on visits made during the event and on intentions to revisit after the event's completion, but not upon the impact of the event and on the decisions of potential tourists (those who were never previously interested in visiting the city but who now want to visit it after the event's completion). This paper identifies the factors affecting visits made after the event's completion. Thus, the decision making process of those tourists with no past experience of the destination becomes crucial. By examining the interrelationships between event images, destination brand image, perceived satisfaction with the event, and intentions to visit, this study proposes a theoretical model of the sustainable tourism impact of non-repetitive events.

1. Literature review

1.1. Event marketing

Since the 1960s, event tourism marketing has been studied by scholars. Getz (1991) regards events as "an opportunity for leisure, social or cultural experience outside the normal range of choices or beyond everyday experience". This definition is accepted and quoted by most scholars and researchers. A well implemented event marketing strategy is the basis for the "value creation spaces" that an event generates (Crowther, Donlanis 2011) while event marketing is a central path to reach the target customers (Kapustina, Reshetilo 2011).

Events can be divided into two types; one is repetitive, and is hosted in the same place on many successive occasions; the other is non-repetitive and is hosted only once in any given place (Kellett, Hede, Chalip 2008; Taks et al. 2009). An example of the first type of event would be the Glastonbury Festival--a music festival held in the English town of Glastonbury since 1970. …

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