Academic journal article The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy

A Brief Review and Update of Mode Deactivation Therapy

Academic journal article The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy

A Brief Review and Update of Mode Deactivation Therapy

Article excerpt

Adolescence is a difficult period for any individual. Hormones, peer relations and emotional development rarely mix smoothly. According to domestic violence statistics over 10 million children are witness or victims of abuse (Linehan, 1993) as cited by the website domesticviolencestatistics.org (2014). These individuals find adolescence explosive and volatile. As men, the boys are twice as likely to become the abuser. Anxiety, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd), physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behavior would become the behavioral expression of their misaligned emotional states (Bass & Apsche, 2013). These adolescents enter the system with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Disorder (Hollman, 2010). Rarely has a youth entered the juvenile justice system or therapy voluntarily; it is usually court ordered. For many therapists the goal is to simply manage their anger and re-direct the behavior; the first of these treatments is behavioral based.

In 1996, Aaron Beck developed the concept of Modes or core beliefs that impacted psychological functioning (Hollman, 2010). Beck posited that people learned from unconscious experiential components and cognitive structural processing components. Unconsciously a belief would be held internally and could activate anger and aggression, especially during interpersonal situations. In a study of over 500 males diagnosed with Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Conduct Disorder, 90% had personal history of sexual, physical and emotional abuse. This victimization altered their "real world" response to interpersonal situations (Hollman, 2010). A touch can be interpreted as an attack sparking inappropriate responses. Deviant and sexual behaviors are dysfunctional due to dysfunctional modes or schemas and in order to change a person's behavior, the experiential components have to be restructured (Apsche & DiMeo, 2010). By ending the dysfunctional behaviors and habitual responses and replacing them with self-awareness, acceptance and regulatory skills, this violent adolescent male population can recover (Hollman, 2010). This article will examine the third wave treatments and their effectiveness across various populations. The third wave therapies are defined by their nonjudgmental approach to the thoughts, feelings and behaviors found in vulnerable population.

* Third wave therapies

Treatments like Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (act) were the beginning of what is now termed the third generation of treatment (Hollman, 2010). Founded by Robert Kohlenberg and Mavis Tsai, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a behavioral approach to therapy (Kohlenberg, 2012) and was based on B.F. Skinner's theories on human development (Bowen, Haworth, Grow, Tsai, & Kohlenberg, 2012). Its focus is on implementing a close and intense relationship between the therapist and the client. Its purpose is to treat the functional, contextual, analytical modes of human development while producing an intense personal therapeutic relationship (Bowen, et al, 2012). The core condition that FAP clients present are within the presence or lack of human relationships. In FAP, the therapeutic relationship is the healing vehicle for the patient. The therapeutic relationship consists of a sacred space, awareness, courage and love. The overall intent is to increase personal closeness with others through experiential skills teaching (Bowen, et al, 2012).

Since avoidance of openness and honesty in interactions with others is a major problem associated with interpersonal relationships, the client is encouraged to overcome the avoidance by taking a risk and being open and honest with others. Overcoming avoidance is accomplished through mindfulness training (Bowen, et al., 2012). By teaching the client to be aware of their thoughts and that they are only thoughts, the automatic maladaptive pattern can be shifted to a new perception and the client's behavior is decentered (Bowen, et al. …

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