Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Urban and Peri-Urban Passenger Transport Integration through Hub-and-Spoke-Network

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Urban and Peri-Urban Passenger Transport Integration through Hub-and-Spoke-Network

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

Sustainable development is guided by the balance between three main issues which each system must overcome: economic, social and environmental. The Brundtland Report (WCED, 1987) defined the sustainable development as "the development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs".

The transport sector has always shown a steady growth in terms of provided activities (volumes and traffic). This growth is supported primarily by the logarithmic scale of the average daily trip length. In France the average distance of the daily travel (excluding walking distances) was less than 100m in 1800, about 1km in 1900 and increased to 50 km from the late 20th century (Grubler, 2004). Both the growth of number of provided services and the constant rise of the trip length is just a consequence of two overlapping issues that evolution of urban and peri-urban space is facing:

* the expansion of cities outskirts;

* the delayed reaction of transport systems to the dynamic needs of the residents.

The individual motorized transport has a great share in the present transport options and to hold down this trend, measures to increase the attractiveness of the public transport system must be adopted (European Commission, 2007).

Over the time, a series of new measures were done in order to increase the performances of public transport system: new transport lines were created, timetable of different means of transport were correlated, the operating fleet was dimensioned accordingly to the population density and access restrictions were imposed to different areas of the cities.

Urban and peri-urban residents generally choose, as a form of transport, the mean which is more facile to their individual needs for mobility. This subjective preference often brings them in overuse of individual transport forms with significant social and environmental negative impacts. Therefore the transport means integration, the cooperation between different transport operators and the use of nonmotorised travel means can be exploited for an efficient use and advantages for every market actor:

* Non-motorized transport (zero emissions, low capacity and short autonomy);

* Individual motorized transport (high emissions, low capacity, long range);

* Mass transportation (medium emissions, high capacity, long range).

In addition to the benefits of integrating all modes of transport, it should overcome a series of problems created by the use of some transport means for specific zones: territory segregation and fragmentation by the mass transport or weather dependence of some green modes. The cooperation between all involved actors is a central element on which relies the success or the failure of the integration which should aim for quality increase of the transport service and a reliable treatment of the users (James, 2001).

The common institutional barriers in adopting and implementing a sustainable transport policy are highlighted by Banister (2005):

* Resource barriers--local, regional, and governmental authorities are reluctant to provide money for investments that do not match their policy priorities;

* Institutional--the inner structure of institution involved in transport provision and the differences in culture between departments (e.g. bureaucratic, market oriented, sustainable vision), the lack of coordination and the dissipation of legal power may reduce the capacity to implement;

* Social and cultural--social acceptability is often influenced by the type of implementing measures (push or pull actions), the pull (encouragement) measures being more popular than push (discouragement) measures;

* Legal--many transport policies need adjustment of laws and regulations outside the transport domain, therefore more efforts have to be done in implementing them;

* Side effects--sometimes is quite difficult to anticipate both positive and negative side effects (e. …

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