Academic journal article Education

Motivations Behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

Academic journal article Education

Motivations Behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

Article excerpt

Background

Recent attention in the news and in professional literature on bullying has suggested that bullying behaviors are becoming more frequent and coming in non-traditional and more potent forms. Typically, bullying behavior is thought to happen in a school yard or during unsupervised play time. Bullying has been found to extend beyond the K-12 classroom and into college. The computer has provided a means to allow children to bully beyond these typical arenas and bully through emailing, text messaging or in a social chat room or network. This type of bullying is referred to as cyber bullying and is defined as "activities using technology to bully others" (Kraft & Wang, 2009). Actions of cyber bullying may include spreading rumors online, sending threatening emails, and writing hurtful comments on other people's webpages.

Cyber-bullying

Additionally, reports of cyber bullying are increasing and are often associated with adolescents. Juvonen (2008) surveyed 1415 students about bullying in general and cyber bullying. He found 72 percent of students have reported being bullied at least once. Of students who said they were bullied, 85 percent of them where bullied in the school setting. He found Caucasian girls between the ages of 12-17 reported the highest incident of bullying and 90 percent of these victims of cyber bullying do not report incidents. Cyber bullying victims were mostly female (75%). He found cyber bullying is most evident in students between 12 and 17 years of age.

Cyber stalking could be considered another type of cyber bullying. Cyber stalking is stalking or harassing someone using electronic means including websites, chat rooms, discussion forums, blogs, e-mail and social media (Mullen, 1999). The stalker follows the victim's online activity to gather information and then uses that information to make threats or verbally intimidate the victim.

Cyber stalking can be placed into three different categories including email stalking, internet stalking, and computer stalking. Email stalking is when unsolicited email (including hate, obscene or threatening) is sent repetitively in an intimidating manner. Internet stalking takes place when the stalker makes global statements on the internet with the intent to create emotional distress or fear through the Internet. Examples would be sending offensive and threatening messages through chat rooms or Facebook. Computer stalking involves the stalker taking control of another person's computer. This stalking is a computer to computer connection that enables the intruder to maintain control over the computer of the victim. The stalker can potentially view the victim's computer in real time and send messages indicating that they are watching their online activities at all times.

Mullen has further classified four types of stalkers. The rejected stalker had an intimate relationship with the victim and is seeking revenge for terminating the relationship. Intimacy seekers attempt to develop a relationship with someone who has engaged their desires or who they perceive has mutual affection for them. Incompetent suitors are often socially inept, and they do not abide by social rules when pursuing a relationship with someone. Resentful stalkers try to instill fear in their victims out of retaliation for an actual or perceived injury or humiliation.

Cyber bullying also takes place on college campuses (Ngo & Paternoster, 2011). Specifically, criminologists have been concerned about the growth of cyber-crime through the extended use of computers and computer networks. They were investigating the correlation between the amount of time spent on computers and exposure of cyber bullying.

The candidates selected for this study were college students from a southeastern university. An online self-survey was emailed to undergraduate students (N=1,533). Out of the 1,533 students, only 295 completed the survey. …

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