Academic journal article Management Research and Practice

Nexus of Employee Motivation with HRM and Workplace Behaviour: An Assessment of the Dominant Factors

Academic journal article Management Research and Practice

Nexus of Employee Motivation with HRM and Workplace Behaviour: An Assessment of the Dominant Factors

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

"Motivation" is a factor that always remained as black box. Drever (1952) defines motivation in terms of "the phenomena involved in the operation of incentives and drives". As interest of the management is always in improving employee performance, these days employee motivation has received increasing research attention as a unit of analysis. Motivation is a principal constituent of the black energy that operates through the performance of the employee. Substantial evidence support that employees need to have motivation to engage in behaviors that contribute to the achievement of a firm's goals (e.g., Baldwin, 1959; Heider, 1958; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1994). Higher productivity and higher employee retention can be realized by enhancing the motivation of employee, which in turn helps the organization survive in rapidly changing and competitive business environment (Smith, 1994; Lindner, 1998). But motivation of the workers remained centuries-old puzzle. Employees are motivated intrinsically as well as extrinsically. Many economists leave the intrinsic motivation aside because it is difficult to analyse and control (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 64), and have suggested to rely on extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivation (e.g., Prendergast, 1999). Employees can be extrinsically motivated by satisfying their needs directly and indirectly, especially through monetary compensation (Calder & Staw, 1975, p. 599), reward and command policy (Argyris, 1998). These days, employees are being provided with different direct and indirect monetary and non-monetary benefits by structured methods of Human Resource Management (HRM). Modern articles suggesting to place more efforts to conduct research on social capital in work place (e.g. Nakamura & Yorks, 2011). This article deals with the functions of HRM, work place support (WPS) and work place undermining (WPU) in employee motivation.

Fey et al. (2009) demonstrated that HRM practices are lever through which employee motivation can be increased but they have included only few variables (viz. training, competence and performance appraisal, merit based promotion, performance based compensation and internal communication) as the indicator of HRM that misses a number of important factors. Vermeeren et al. (2009) revealed that HRM practices influences organizational performances through job satisfaction and motivation positively. Lindner (1998) found following factors that influence employee motivation: interesting work, followed by good wages, full appreciation of work done, job security, working conditions, promotions and growth, employee participation, employee loyalty, tactful discipline and sympathetic help with personal problems.

According to Smith (1994), positive working environment is very important for employee motivation and retention. Agneessens and Wittek (2008) found a linear relationship between trustworthiness and overall job satisfaction. There are also indications that, workplace undermining negatively influences work behaviour through trust among coworkers (Baron & Neuman, 1996; Giacalone & Greenberg, 1997; Ong Lin Dar, 2010). The above studies tried to provide some indications about the relationships between Motivation and WPS and WPU quite indirectly.

All the aforesaid studies either included incomplete and unclassified set of factors, or they largely depend upon the subjective judgment of employee instead of drawing inference from data. In such cases, the results would be seriously affected by the communication error and wrong attitude of the employee and management. This study was carried out on the permanent employees of different government and non-government organizations located at Rajshahi City corporation (divisional city), Bangladesh. In this study, Motivation, HRM, WPS and WPU were measured by a number of structured direct and indirect questions using appropriate scale and techniques, and the inference was drawn by appropriate statistical method. …

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