Academic journal article Journal of Anthropology

Analysis of Facial Height between Prepubertal and Postpubertal Subjects in Rivers State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of Anthropology

Analysis of Facial Height between Prepubertal and Postpubertal Subjects in Rivers State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

The craniofacial complex is divided into three and these include the cranium, upper face, and the lower face [1]. Facial aesthetic appreciation by the human mind is closely related proportions of the component portions in harmony [2]. This is because discrepancies or alterations in craniofacial proportions result in facial/body dimorphic syndromes in certain individuals especially when it far deviates from acceptable norms for a particular ethnic or racial population [3-5]. However, the growth of the upper and lower jaw is determined by the growth of the base of the skull. Failure of the cranium and base of the skull to increase in size causes a remarkable decrease in the size of the maxilla and mandible [6]. It is generally established in the literature that growth and discrepancies in sizes are under both genetic and environmental influence of which hormonal factor plays a significant role [7]. There are significant differences in hormonal levels at different stages of life [8]. The expectation is that, with such changes in hormonal levels especially the sex and growth hormones, there maybe corresponding changes in anthropometric craniofacial parameters in various age groups. The purpose of our study was therefore to determine differences in facial heights between prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

2. Materials and Methods

This was a randomized cross-sectional study which involved prepubertal and postpubertal subjects and was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria, between July 2012 and October 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research and Ethics and Committee of the College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, as well as informed consent from each subject before inclusion. The study consists of a total of four hundred subjects, two hundred males (one hundred belong to the prepubertal which was 12-16 yrs of age group and one hundred to the postpubertal, 17-25 yrs of age group). Similarly 200 females were selected. The age selection was based on differences in hormonal levels before and after puberty. Individuals with craniofacial abnormalities as in craniosynostosis, sickle cell disease, and other syndromes affecting the craniofacial morphology were excluded. Also individuals below 12 were excluded because these were much younger children whose parameters are obviously lower and for individuals above 25 yrs; complete fusion of the epiphysis plates had already set in.

The materials used for this study include

(i) electronic digital caliper,

(ii) paper,

(iii) pen,

(iv) calculator,

(v) methylated spirit and cotton wool.

The facial parameters were taken based on standardized methods [9,10]. These include the following.

Upper Facial Height (UFH). Using the digital caliper, this was measured as the distance between the glabella and the nasal sill.

Lower Facial Height (LFH). Using the digital caliper, this was measured as the distance between the nasal sill and the chin.

Posterior Facial Height (PFH). This was also measured as the distance from the tragus of the ear and the soft tissue around the angle of the mandible.

(i) The subjects were asked to sit upright with head unsupported, relaxed, and breathe quietly as measurements were taken to prevent errors from soft tissue contractions.

(ii) The previous landmarks, that is, the glabella, nasal sill, chin, tragus, and soft tissue around the angle of the mandible were indicated with a pen marker. This allows point-to-point measurement and prevented intraassessor errors.

(iii) The digital caliper was set on the 0.00 mm before each reading was taken to ensure standardization of the measuring tool.

(iv) The upper, lower, and posterior facial heights for each subject was taken and recorded. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.