Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

The MCDM Application in Urban Planning Projects: The CDS Project of District 22 of Tehran Municipality

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

The MCDM Application in Urban Planning Projects: The CDS Project of District 22 of Tehran Municipality

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

City development strategy (CDS) is one of the urban planning projects that provided in 1998 for first time in the world and has been provided for over 140 cities to now. The CDS is a process devised and owned by local stakeholders to formulate a holistic vision for city. The process involves analysis of the city's prospects for economic and social development and redress of poverty, identification of priorities for investment and development assistance, and implementation of this vision through partnership based actions (World Bank 2000). The CDS preparing process has five main steps that includes preparation, analysis, strategy formulation, implementation monitoring and evaluation and finally consulting (World Bank 2000) that outputs of this process are used for development of city as a guideline. The most important outputs of CDS are visions, strategies and their priorities. It may that one vision has abundant strategies and they must be prioritised. For ranking of strategies, the experts team regarded to some difficulties such as abundance of strategies and lack of confident method for ranking that this caused experts to be confused.

Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used in ranking (Shyur 2006). MCDM approaches are major parts of decision theory and analysis. They seek to take explicit account of more than one criterion in supporting the decision process (Belton 1990). The aim of MCDM methods is to help decision makers learn about the problems they face, to learn about their own and other parties' personal value systems, to learn about organizational values and objectives, and through exploring these in the context of the problem to guide them in identifying a preferred course of action (Belton 1990;French 1988; Russell 1990; Von Winterfeldt 1986; Watson 1987; Zeleny 1990).

The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) are two MCDM methods that can be used for ranking. AHP (Saaty 1980, 2008) is a key multi-criteria decision making methodology which succeeded in gaining widely acceptance of both academia and the practitioners (Cakir 2008). In the last 20 years, AHP has been used in almost all the applications related to multiple criteria decision-making (Vargas 1990; Vaidya 2006). This model uses pair wise comparison to allocate weights to the elements of each level, measuring their relative importance by using Saaty's 1 to 9 scales, and finally calculates global weights for assessment at the bottom level. Moreover, AHP is not practically usable if the number of alternatives and criteria is large since the repetitive assessments may cause fatigue in decision makers (Briand 1998).

Another popular method for solving MCDM problems is the Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution(TOPSIS) which was first developed by Hwang and Yoon(Hwang & Yoon 1981). The TOPSIS bases upon the concept that the optimal alternative should have the shortest distance from the positive idea solution (PIS) and the farthest distance from the negative idea solution (NIS). (Wang & Elhag 2005; Shyur 2006). This method has been widely used in the literature (Abosinna & Amer 2005 ; Agrawal, Kohli & Gupta1991 ; Chen & Tzeng, 2004).

Because strategies ranking coincides to these models as a multiple criteria problem, using them can be the best way for solving this problem.

This paper tried to examine AHP and TOPSIS simultaneously for ranking of the strategies and the strategies of vision 1 of district 22 of Tehran CDS plan as a sample have been used. The results show that using MCDM methods is very useful tools in urban planning specially in CDS plans, because these plans are interdisciplinary which are affected by many factors such as economic, social, environmental factors.

2. CITY PROFILE

The District 22 of Tehran is about 10000 hectares where located in northwestern of the Tehran City (Capital of Iran). …

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