Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Sequence Determining of Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Construction Applying Permutation Method

Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Sequence Determining of Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Construction Applying Permutation Method

Article excerpt

Introduction

The world oil crisis of the seventies has lead to important changes regarding energy resources and their exploitation. In the nineties, there was an increased focus on reducing the negative effects that the massive and uncontrolled use of the fossil fuels had on the environment. The beginning of the 21st century brought along new technologies in the green energy [29].

In recently have been recognized the value of wind power as a major renewable energy source for long term; because wind is free, clean and renewable [27].

Wind power one is the most deserving of all cleaner energy production options from technical, environmental, socio-economical and sociopolitical standpoint (geothermal, solar, tidal, biomass, hydro) for more widespread deployment [20].

The wind energy is one of the most widely exploited and rapidly evolved types of renewable energy [26].

The World Wind Energy Association (WWEA), claims that a capacity of the wind energy reaching a total value of 1900 GW is likely before the year 2020. China, USA, Germany, Spain, India and other countries, especially Eastern Europe, as well as many Asian countries and Latin America are expected to demonstrate a significant growth in this market [28].

Europe is the absolute leader in building the offshore wind turbines. One of the key reasons for building the offshore wind turbines is a lack of territory, suitable for the onshore stations.

This situation is highly relevant in densely populated countries, such as Germany, Denmark, and Netherlands.

Report of The Wind Energy European Association, on the European level, generated a more detailed estimate for the year 2020 [21]:

* 230 GW of installed capacity (190 GW onshore, 40 GW offshore);

* Annual investments of 23.5 billion EUR (14.7 billion EUR onshore, 8.8 billion EUR offshore);

* Generation of 582 TWh of electric energy (433 TWh onshore, 148 TWh offshore);

* 14-17% of the entire EU energy request shall be generated by the wind energy production;

* Reduction of C[O.sub.2] emission by 333x106 tons annually.

European Wind Energy Association estimated that in 2030 the offshore wind turbines will generate more energy compared to the onshore wind turbines.

Lithuania, being a member of the EU, should execute its assumed obligations related to this field. It is anticipated that in 2020 the wind turbines may produce 10 percent of all the electric power consumed in Lithuania. This means that the country should establish favorable conditions to build the wind turbines with a total power of 500 MW [11].

Onshore wind energy technology is more mature than offshore, but nowadays, there is a considerable trend to the establishment of offshore wind farms [26]. Offshore wind power as an upcoming technology and growing business to deliver renewable energy with no greenhouse gas emissions and without depleting fossil energy resources has startling perspectives for developers, authorities and society [2].

Wind energy is clean and inexpensive, but space for the turbines is becoming scarce, which makes offshore wind an attractive choice. Therefore, offshore wind power has recently been widely focused on and developed, as it is reliable, intensive, and its source is abundant and offers vast offshore areas. It can not only ease reliance on oil and cut down emissions, but also stimulate the marine economy development and offer job opportunities [10].

Offshore wind farms present higher investment, operational and maintenance cost, the significant offshore wind resource potential, the higher quality wind resources located at sea, the ability to use even larger wind turbines due to avoidance of certain land and the ability of construction of even larger power plants than onshore, as there is no geographical "limit", form the primary motivations of developing offshore wind energy [26]. …

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