Academic journal article Journal of Digital Information Management

A WSN Nodes Access Mechanism and Directed Diffusion in Emergency Circumstances

Academic journal article Journal of Digital Information Management

A WSN Nodes Access Mechanism and Directed Diffusion in Emergency Circumstances

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), one of the three high-tech industries forecasted by MIT, has been a hot research area in recent years. If the emergence of address-centered Internet has led to an explosive revolution in Information Sharing, the data-centered WSN that connects the natural entities in the real world into an information network through mobile sensors has already triggered a new transformation in information technology. This has been evidenced by the popularization of IOT (Internet of Things) and its wide-range of applications.

WSNs are generally application-oriented and their design and implementation need to carefully consider specific application requirements. The unique characteristics in emergency rescue, such as the harsh environment of the disaster area and the uneasy arriving of the rescue team, have generated many emergency-related application requirements in WSN implementation [1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Specifically these requirements are listed below.

(1) Usually, the occurrence of disaster is unpredictable. Sometime it is difficult to get the concrete geographic information of the disaster area. Probably, it is inconvenient even impossible for rescuer to arrive. So the senor nodes cannot be deployed manually, therefore, it is unable to achieve the deterministic coverage of the target area.

(2) In order to overcome the interference generated by noise, microwave, and obstruction, it is necessary to design effective communication mechanisms between nodes, to solve the signal conflict of the wireless channel, to choose a reasonable path for data transmission, and to improve the stability of the network through the cooperation of the nodes.

(3) It is of great importance for emergency rescue systems to integrate individual sensors or other related things which carried by rescuers or mobile robots to the WSNs. Not only does the integration make the acquaintance of the on-site information of the target area more flexible and effective, but also can fill the blind monitoring point and increase the network coverage. To support the integration, the network function needs to be expanded and the access mechanism of mobile nodes and the dynamic network management technique need to be further investigated.

(4) Different from common environmental monitoring systems that gather information collected by sensors regularly, the system used under emergency circumstances often needs more quick reaction to events, and supports the function of querying the real-time situation of certain area or monitoring point and the function of querying the exception position of certain subject. Therefore, a real-time, query-based, efficient, and robust design of the routing strategy is needed. Only when the collected data exceeds the pre-defined threshold or a query request is received, will the data be uploaded to the Sink node. This would avoid the network congestion and the energy consumption caused by the transmission of a huge amount of data.

In order to meet the special requirements of the WSN monitoring systems in emergency circumstances, this paper designs a mobile access mechanism and proposes an effective strategy for interest propagation in the directed diffusion routing algorithm. Our simulation experiments have compared traditional directed diffusion routing algorithm and improved directed diffusion routing algorithm and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the design of WSN system architecture and a mobile node access mechanism in emergency circumstances; Section 3 describes the design of the directed diffusion routing algorithm and our proposed effective strategy for interest propagation; Section 4 presents the experimental results; and finally Section 5 concludes.

2. The Design of WSNs System Architecture and Nodes Access Mechanism in Emergency Circumstances

2. …

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