Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Effect of Yoga Regimen on Lung Functions Including Diffusion Capacity in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Effect of Yoga Regimen on Lung Functions Including Diffusion Capacity in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

Article excerpt

Byline: Asha. Yadav, Savita. Singh, K. Singh, Preeti. Pai

Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22 [sup]nd day and on 90 [sup]th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP'AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1 [sup]st sec (FEV [sub]1 ), and FEV [sub]1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also showed significant improvement in Group-I patients who followed yoga regimen. Conclusions: Yoga regimen was found to improve lung functions and diffusion capacity in CAD patients besides improving cardiovascular functions. Thus, it can be used as a complimentary or adjunct therapy along with the conventional medicine for their treatment and rehabilitation.

INTRODUCTION

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is defined as impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart against its demand, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary circulation to the heart. Prevalence of CAD is greatly increasing in our country for the last several years and is expected to assume epidemic proportions soon. CAD causes more deaths and disabilities, and incurs greater economic costs than any other illness in the developed as well as developing countries. Projections based on the Global Burden of Disease Study estimate that by the year 2020, the burden of athero-thrombotic cardiovascular disease in India would surpass that in any other region in the world. [sup][1] Studies in India have documented a five-fold higher prevalence of coronary heart disease in the urban as compared to the rural population. [sup][2] Over the last three decades, progress in coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous interventions has improved the prognosis of CAD, but has not been able to address the basic etiopathology of CAD. [sup][3],[4] These are merely providing palliative relief at a high cost.

The lungs are linked in series with the cardiac pump, and they are not only influenced by mechanical alterations in pump function but also by neuro-humoral modulators and cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of various heart diseases. [sup][5],[6] It has also been proposed that increased levels of circulating cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 in CAD patients may induce changes in lung parenchyma. …

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