Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Clinical Psychology

Gender Differences on State Self-Esteem in Young Adults

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Clinical Psychology

Gender Differences on State Self-Esteem in Young Adults

Article excerpt

Byline: Sobia Aftab and Sofia Aslam


Objective: The present study aimed at investigating differences among male and female young adults on the variable of State Self-Esteem and its three subscales i.e. Performance Self-Esteem Social Self-Esteem and Appearance Self-Esteem.

Research Design: A Comparative Study.

Place of Study: Various departments within Science and Arts Faculties of University of Karachi.

Sample and Method: The sample consisted of 500 young adults recruited from two Faculties of University of Karachi i.e. Science and Arts. The ages of the participants ranged from 18-25 years with the mean age of 21.97 (SD= 1.95) Representation of both genders was equal in the sample. The research measure used was Urdu Adapted Version of State Self-Esteem Scale along with Demographic Form. t-test was employed for statistical analysis of the data.

Results: Results indicate insignificant differences among male and female young adults on the variable of State Self-Esteem (t = -0.89; df = 498; pgreater than .05) and its three subscales i.e. i.e. Performance Self-Esteem (t= -1.55; df = 498; pgreater than .05) Social Self-Esteem (t= -.84 df=498 pgreater than .05) and Appearance Self-Esteem (t= .89 df=498 pgreater than .05).

Conclusion: The findings of present study showed insignificant gender differences on state self-esteem appearance state self-esteem performance state self-esteem and social state self-esteem which may be the result of the augmented changes in cultural and societal roles of women and women.

Keywords: State self-esteem; gender; young adults


State self-esteem is defined by Heatherton and Polivy as momentarily altered or short-lived changes in self-esteem whereas; Rubin and Hewstone defined it as the self-evaluation in immediate present. The importance of state self-esteem for both physical and psychological health is widely studied and well documented in the western literature. It is considered as theoretically an important construct which has a significant association with numerous variables like depression anxiety etc. Review of literature indicate that one area that has not been given much research attention is its relation with socio-demographic characteristics such as; age gender socioeconomic status etc. One study cannot rule out all possible explanations therefore among these hosts of characteristics only gender is the variable of interest in the present study.

Gender stands for socially constructed roles behaviors activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women . It covers the issues that affect the male and female such as; biases experiences challenges etc. and these issues vary in different cultures. Gender is the topic of interest for many researchers due to its importance in terms of specific gender roles in cultures their different life styles inequalities gender difference and so on. In this study the concerned issue is whether there is gender difference on state self-esteem among young adults Because in our day-to-day life we frequently come across the above mentioned issues. It has been seen that state self-esteem is influenced by our experiences ideas and messages we receive or perceive from our society/culture. Societal and cultural messages impact one' state self-esteem.

The reflect appraisal model for gender differences in self-esteem anticipates that there is no gender difference itself according to it a key factor of self-esteem is that people base their self-esteem on others' opinions and perception. If the perception is positive then self-esteem will be high and if the view of someone for us is negative then it will lead to low self-esteem . Review of the existing evidences report mixed findings on association of gender and state self-esteem. For instance a study conducted by Gentile and his colleagues7 demonstrated a significant gender difference on appearance self-esteem and insignificant difference on academic (performance) and social self-esteem. …

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