Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Simulation training has been utilized for decades in various fields including aviation, military, business, and health care as a means to apply knowledge and skills learned in a real-world scenario. (1-4) Simulation training encompasses many formats including the use of roleplaying, patients or patient actors, computer simulation, virtual reality, and low-fidelity and high-fidelity mannequins. High-fidelity mannequin simulation (eg, computerized full-body mannequin programmed to provide realistic physiologic responses) provides maximal realism; by contrast, low-fidelity mannequin simulation (eg, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mannequin) is static and provides the learner with less realism. (4) Health care providers who typically have significant experience with simulation training include physicians, nurses, and emergency personnel. Pharmacists are increasingly using simulation training in their education. In the pharmacy literature, simulation training publications were non-existent before 2006, but since that time there have been at least 30 published manuscripts on the use of simulation-based teaching. (5) The majority of this evidence includes the use of high-fidelity mannequin simulation instruction. (6-23) A number of outcomes (eg, self-perceived clinical skills, teamwork and interprofessional teamwork skills, blood pressure assessment) have been assessed using high-fidelity mannequins. Although it has been shown that high-fidelity mannequin simulation can increase knowledge retention in pharmacy education, data is lacking on retention of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills following simulation training. (8)

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has incorporated high-fidelity mannequin simulation into its doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum since 1999 and computer-based simulation since 2010. Both forms of simulation have been integrated with pharmacotherapeutics and critical care therapeutics courses. This integration is consistent with the vision of the Accreditation Council for Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE), which endorsed the use of simulation in ACPE-accredited PharmD programs because of its positive impact on students' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. (24) Simulation may also be used to teach the principles of patient-centered care, a subdomain in the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Educational Outcomes. (25) In addition, the expanded use of simulation is consistent with the college's continued curricular assessment plan focusing on independent critical thinking, optimization of pharmaceutical care, and development of life-long learner skills.

Advanced cardiac life support is an integrated, team-based response utilizing treatment strategies and algorithms to optimize survival of patients with cardiac events. In acute care, a rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team that responds to life-threatening events. Members of an ACLS RRT, including pharmacists, are required to maintain ACLS certification. Traditionally, ACLS recertification is recommended every 2 years. (26) Despite this recommendation, data for the optimum time interval needed to retain ACLS knowledge and skills are mixed. (27,28) Experts have advocated that refresher courses be added to current training recommendations to increase ACLS knowledge and skill retention. (29,30) Pharmacy students have demonstrated the retention of knowledge and skills following training in the use of an automated external defibrillator for a period up to 4 months. (31) However, the authors are not aware of published data assessing retention of ACLS knowledge and skills among pharmacy students. Health care professionals need to understand the full scope of ACLS, but the focus for medical, nursing, and pharmacy learners is different. Since previous studies have addressed ACLS knowledge and skill retention in medical and nursing learners, the purpose of this study was to assess pharmacy students' ability to retain ACLS knowledge and skills within 120 days of ACLS high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. …

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