Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

International Philosophical Quarterly: Vol. 54, No. 4, December 2014

Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

International Philosophical Quarterly: Vol. 54, No. 4, December 2014

Article excerpt

Aristotle's Voluntary/Deliberate Distinction, Double-Effect Reasoning, and Ethical Relevance, T. A. CAVANAUGH

This essay articulates Aristotle's account of the voluntary with a view to weighing in on a contemporary ethical debate concerning the moral relevance of the intended/forseen distinction. Natural lawyers employ this distinction to contrast consequentially comparable acts with different intentional structures. They propose, for example, that consequentially comparable acts of terror and tactical bombing morally differ, based on their diverse structures of intention. Opponents of double-effect reasoning hold that one best captures the widely acknowledged intuitive appeal of the distinction by contrasting agents, not acts. These thinkers hold that the terror bomber differs from the tactical bomber, while terror bombing does not differ ethically from tactical bombing. Aristotle's accounts of the voluntary and the deliberately decided upon provide grounds for the ethical relevance of the intended/forseen distinction as applied to both acts and agents.

Dasein, the Early Years: Heideggerian Reflections On Childhood, LAWRENCE J. HATAB

Like most philosophers, Heidegger gave little attention to childhood, but his philosophical emphasis on prereflective practice and understanding seems uniquely qualified to help make sense of a child's experience and development. Moreover, it seems that many central Heideggerian concepts are best defended, exemplified, and articulated by bringing child development into the discussion. A Heideggerain emphasis on pretheoretical world-involvement opens up a rich array of phenomena for studying child development, which can improve upon standard theories that have overemphasized exclusive conditions or criteria. This paper begins by laying out some basic features of Heidegger's conception of being-in-the-world as a preparation for understanding the world of the child. Then it briefly discusses some of Heidegger's remarks on childhood, followed by some reflections on language acquisition and the correlation of anxiety and meaning.

The Forms in the Euthyphro and the Statesman: A Case Against the Developmental Reading of Plato's Dialogues, MICHAEL OLIVER WIITALA

The Euthyphro is generally considered one of Plato's early dialogues. According to the developmental approach to reading the dialogues, when writing the Euthyphro Plato had not yet developed the sort of elaborate theory of forms that we see presented in the middle dialogues and further refined in the late dialogues. …

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